Week 3, ENGL 231: British Authors > 1800
Week 3, ENGL 231: British Authors > 1800 ENGL 231
Popular in English Authors > 1800
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Education
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 231 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by White, Laura in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see English Authors > 1800 in Education at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Reviews for Week 3, ENGL 231: British Authors > 1800
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/10/16
EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 Week 3 Recap Hello, fellow students! Once again, it’s me, Marshall DeFor. This week, we talked more about Piaget’s Theory of learning and how we can incorporate his ideas into the classroom setting. I wrote all of the following material, unless it is otherwise cited. Life gets crazy, so hopefully, this takes some of the pressure off of missing a day or missing a section of notes or reading! Table of Contents: Lectures Notes Monday Wednesday Friday Study Guide: Readings for the Week Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 9299 Lectures Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only. I am a human, and I make mistakes. I cannot write down everything that is said or presented. These notes should provide you with a large amount of what was discussed in class, but may not include all of the material that you need to know. The main goal of these lecture notes are to help you remember points of each lecture that are not included in the slides provided by the instructor. Monday Happy Labor Day! No class, no lecture notes. Wednesday ● Preoccupational Stage: (27 years) ○ Rapid expansion of language skills ■ Grammar becomes more complex ■ Fluency strengthens ○ Exploring social cues through play and miming observations; this ties in with active play/interaction, assimilation/accommodation, schema development ○ Lack of Logical Rules ■ Egocentrism: ● Child knowledge is indistinguishable for other’s knowledge ○ What the other party was seeing is what the child is seeing. ○ Crayon box test ● Time of figuring out distinctions between self and the other ■ Animism: ● Assume that inanimate objects, like a teddy bear, can think and feel because they can think and feel EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 ■ Lack of Conservation: glass of water poured into a differentshaped glass does not mean that there is less juice; shape doesn’t determine size ● Concrete Operational Stage (711 yrs.; sometimes this is where the development stops) ○ More logical and flexible thinking develops: ○ Conservation is consistent; egocentrism has diminished ○ Multiple classification: classifications of objects as members of different groups simultaneously ○ Seriation: Objects arranged in order according to plan, flexible strategy, transitive inference may be used ■ If A is shorter than B, and B is shorter than C, then A is shorter than C. Generally best if kept to pictures in this phase, not necessarily in the abstract ■ Spatial operations become more developed; cognitive maps can be used ● Formal Operations Stage (11+, if at all) ○ Logical thinking develops more fully while abstract and scientific thought becomes common ○ Metacognition: cognition about cognition, can think about the way people think ○ Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning: early adolescents begin using a general theory to produce specific (and multiple) hypotheses, then test them ○ Propositional thought: what would black snow look like? Theoretical statements without realworld example ○ Proportional reasoning: Understands and uses concepts in problems solving (e.g. fractions) ● Piaget: Criticisms and Contributions ○ Criticisms: ■ Crosscultural inadequacies, different cultures may value different operational things, context specific variation ■ Children can backslide or revert to less specific thought, especially when they are just making a change to a new way of thinking ■ Times may be pretty off ○ Contributions ■ Important ideas like assimilation/accommodation, conservation, and hypotheticdeductive reasoning ■ Children as active workers of learning instead of passive sponges ■ Way to encourage child development Friday We worked on vignettes in groups. No lecture notes. Study Guide: Readings for the Week Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only. I am a human, and I make mistakes. These notes are not comprehensive and do not tell you all of what the material has to offer. The purpose of these notes is to remind you of basic concepts and vocabulary within the tex . Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 9299 Definitions are taken from the following source and cited parenthetically: EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 Santrock, John W. Adolescence. 16th ed. McGrawHill Education, 2015. Print. Side note: For another section guide for chapter 3 section 2, take a look at page 125. Chapter 3, Section 2: The Cognitive Developmental View A. Piaget’s Theory a. centers around the idea that children are active learners and that they develop their ideas of the world through various cognitive processes. i. The main way that children develop their ideas of the world is through different schemas: mental concepts or frameworks that are useful in organizing and interpreting information (Santrock, p. 93). ii. There are two main ways that children adapt or change schemas: 1. assimilation: t he incorporation of new information into existing knowledge (Santrock, p. 93) 2. accommodation: an adjustment of a schema in response to new information (Santrock, p. 93) iii. When children get new information, it causes a process known as equilibration: a mechanism in Piaget’s theory that explains how individuals shift from one state of thought to the next; the shift occurs as individuals experience cognitive conflict or a disequilibrium in trying to understand the world; eventually, the individual resolves the conflict and reaches a balance, or equilibrium, of thought (Santrock, p. 93). b. Stages of Cognitive Development: i. sensorimotor stage: Piaget’s first stage of development, lasting from birth to about two years of age; in this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical, motoric actions (Santrock, p. 94) ii. preoperational stage: Piaget’s second stage, which lasts approximately from two to seven years of age; in this stage, children begin to represent their world with words, images, and drawings (Santrock, p. 94) iii. Concrete Operational Thought: 1. concrete operational stage: Piaget’s third stage, which lasts approximately from seven to eleven years of age; in this stage, children can perform operations; logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought as long as the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples (Santrock, p. 94) 2. Piaget used “conservation” to describe the ability to recognize that the number or amount of something doesn’t change based on appearance. For example, five pennies close together are still five pennies spread apart. 3. Piaget used “classification” to describe the ability to group similar objects together. iv. Formal Operational Thought: 1. formal operational stage: Piaget’s fourth and final stage of development, which he argued emerges at eleven to fifteen years of age; it is characterized by abstract, idealistic, and logical thought (Santrock, p. 94) 2. This stage involves hypotheticaldeductive reasoning: Piaget’s term for adolescents’ ability, in the formal operations stage, to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems; they then systematically deduce, or conclude, the best path to follow in solving the problem (Santrock, p. 95). 3. Formal operational thought is divided into two categories. In early operational thought, there seems to be limitless possibilities to solve any problem. In late operational thought, intellect catches back up and restores EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 reality to the equation, limiting the number of possibilities to solve problems. c. Evaluating Piaget’s Theory i. Contributions include the idea of assimilation and accommodation into a schema, conservation, and hypotheticaldeductive reasoning, among others. ii. Criticisms include Piaget’s set timeframes, which may be off or may not fit every child in every culture. iii. There is also a pushback against this theory from nonPiagetians: theorists who argue that Piaget got some things right but that his theory needs considerable revision; they give more emphasis to information processing that involves attention, memory, and strategies; they also seek to provide more precise explanations of cognitive changes (Santrock, p. 96). B. Cognitive Changes in Adulthood a. Realistic and Pragmatic Thinking: Idealism decreases. b. Reflective and Realistic Thinking: Thought moves away from polarities like good/bad and towards gradients of multiple understandings. c. Cognition and Emotion: Adults become more aware that emotions have the ability to highly influence their thought processes and decisionmaking. d. postformal thought: thought that is reflective, realistic, and contextual; provisional; realistic; and open to emotions and subjective (Santrock, p. 97) e. Wisdom: i. wisdom: expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters (Santrock, p. 98) ii. Researchers, namely Paul Baltes and colleagues, have found that 1. high levels of wisdom are rare 2. the time from of late adolescence and early adulthood is the main age window for wisdom to emerge 3. factors other than age are critical for wisdom to develop to a high level 4. personalityrelated factors, such as openness to experience and creativity, are better predictors of wisdom than cognitive factors such as intelligence iii. College students and other adults have been measured on a scale with three dimensions: a cognitive scale (cognition), a reflective scale (empathy), and an affective scale (emotion).
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'