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Week 3, ENGL 231: British Authors > 1800

by: Marshall DeFor

Week 3, ENGL 231: British Authors > 1800 ENGL 231

Marketplace > University of Nebraska Lincoln > Education > ENGL 231 > Week 3 ENGL 231 British Authors 1800
Marshall DeFor
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About this Document

Hi, I'm Marshall DeFor. These notes contain an overview of ENGL 231 class lectures in week 3, which covered Samuel Coleridge's poems "Frost at Midnight," "Dejection: An Ode," and "Kubla Khan."
English Authors > 1800
White, Laura
Class Notes
english, Literature, Coleridge
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 231 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by White, Laura in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see English Authors > 1800 in Education at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  Week 3 Recap  Hello, fellow students! Once again, it’s me, Marshall DeFor. This week, we talked more about  Piaget’s Theory of learning and how we can incorporate his ideas into the classroom setting.  I wrote all of the following material, unless it is otherwise cited. Life gets crazy, so hopefully, this  takes some of the pressure off of missing a day or missing a section of notes or reading!    Table of Contents:  Lectures Notes  Monday  Wednesday  Friday  Study Guide: Readings for the Week  Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 92­99    Lectures  Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only.   I am a human, and I make mistakes. I cannot write down everything that is said or presented. These notes  should provide you with a large amount of what was discussed in class, but may not include all of the  material that you need to know. The main goal of these lecture notes are to help you remember points of  each lecture that are not included in the slides provided by the instructor.  Monday  Happy Labor Day! No class, no lecture notes.  Wednesday  ● Pre­occupational Stage: (2­7 years)  ○ Rapid expansion of language skills  ■ Grammar becomes more complex  ■ Fluency strengthens  ○ Exploring social cues through play and miming observations; this ties in with active  play/interaction, assimilation/accommodation, schema development  ○ Lack of Logical Rules  ■ Egocentrism:   ● Child knowledge is indistinguishable for other’s knowledge  ○ What the other party was seeing is what the child is seeing.  ○ Crayon box test  ● Time of figuring out distinctions between self and the other  ■ Animism:  ● Assume that inanimate objects, like a teddy bear, can think and feel  because they can think and feel  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  ■ Lack of Conservation: glass of water poured into a different­shaped glass does not  mean that there is less juice; shape doesn’t determine size  ● Concrete Operational Stage (7­11 yrs.; sometimes this is where the development stops)  ○ More logical and flexible thinking develops:  ○ Conservation is consistent; egocentrism has diminished  ○ Multiple classification: classifications of objects as members of different groups  simultaneously  ○ Seriation: Objects arranged in order according to plan, flexible strategy, transitive inference  may be used  ■ If A is shorter than B, and B is shorter than C, then A is shorter than C. Generally  best if kept to pictures in this phase, not necessarily in the abstract  ■ Spatial operations become more developed; cognitive maps can be used  ● Formal Operations Stage (11+, if at all)  ○ Logical thinking develops more fully while abstract and scientific thought becomes common  ○ Metacognition: cognition about cognition, can think about the way people think  ○ Hypothetical­deductive reasoning: early adolescents begin using a general theory to  produce specific (and multiple) hypotheses, then test them  ○ Propositional thought: what would black snow look like? Theoretical statements without  real­world example  ○ Proportional reasoning: Understands and uses concepts in problems solving (e.g. fractions)  ● Piaget: Criticisms and Contributions  ○ Criticisms:  ■ Cross­cultural inadequacies, different cultures may value different operational  things, context specific variation  ■ Children can backslide or revert to less specific thought, especially when they are  just making a change to a new way of thinking  ■ Times may be pretty off  ○ Contributions  ■ Important ideas like assimilation/accommodation, conservation, and  hypothetic­deductive reasoning  ■ Children as active workers of learning instead of passive sponges  ■ Way to encourage child development  Friday  We worked on vignettes in groups. No lecture notes.  Study Guide: Readings for the Week  Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only.   I am a human, and I make mistakes. These notes are ​not comprehensive​ and do not tell you all of what  the material has to offer. The purpose of these notes is to remind you of basic concepts and vocabulary  within the tex . ​ Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 3 pages 92­99  Definitions are taken from the following source and cited parenthetically:  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  ​ Santrock, John W. ​Adolescence. 16th ed. McGraw­Hill Education, 2015. Print. Side note: For another section guide for chapter 3 section 2, take a look at page 125.    Chapter ​ 3, Section 2: The Cognitive Developmental View  A. Piaget’s Theory   a. centers around the idea that children are active learners and that they develop their ideas of  the world through various cognitive processes.  i. The main way that children develop their ideas of the world is through different  schemas: ​mental concepts or frameworks that are useful in organizing and  interpreting information (Santrock, p. 93).  ii. There are two main ways that children adapt or change schemas:  1. assimilation: t​ he incorporation of new information into existing knowledge  (Santrock, p. 93)  2. accommodation:​ an adjustment of a schema in response to new  information (Santrock, p. 93)  iii. When children get new information, it causes a process known as ​equilibration:​ a  mechanism in Piaget’s theory that explains how individuals shift from one state of  thought to the next; the shift occurs as individuals experience cognitive conflict or a  disequilibrium in trying to understand the world; eventually, the individual resolves  the conflict and reaches a balance, or equilibrium, of thought (Santrock, p. 93).  b. Stages of Cognitive Development:  i. sensorimotor stage: ​Piaget’s first stage of development, lasting from birth to  about two years of age; in this stage, infants construct an understanding of the  world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical, motoric actions  (Santrock, p. 94)  ii. preoperational stage: ​Piaget’s second stage, which lasts approximately from two  to seven years of age; in this stage, children begin to represent their world with  words, images, and drawings (Santrock, p. 94)  iii. Concrete Operational Thought:  1. concrete operational stage: ​Piaget’s third stage, which lasts  approximately from seven to eleven years of age; in this stage, children  can perform operations; logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought as long  as the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples  (Santrock, p. 94)  2. Piaget used “conservation” to describe the ability to recognize that the  number or amount of something doesn’t change based on appearance.  For example, five pennies close together are still five pennies spread  apart.  3. Piaget used “classification” to describe the ability to group similar objects  together.  iv. Formal Operational Thought:  1. formal operational stage: ​Piaget’s fourth and final stage of development,  which he argued emerges at eleven to fifteen years of age; it is  characterized by abstract, idealistic, and logical thought (Santrock, p. 94)  2. This stage involves ​hypothetical­deductive reasoning:​ Piaget’s term for  adolescents’ ability, in the formal operations stage, to develop hypotheses,  or best guesses, about ways to solve problems; they then systematically  deduce, or conclude, the best path to follow in solving the problem  (Santrock, p. 95).  3. Formal operational thought is divided into two categories. In early  operational thought, there seems to be limitless possibilities to solve any  problem. In late operational thought, intellect catches back up and restores  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1  reality to the equation, limiting the number of possibilities to solve  problems.  c. Evaluating Piaget’s Theory  i. Contributions include the idea of assimilation and accommodation into a schema,  conservation, and hypothetical­deductive reasoning, among others.  ii. Criticisms include Piaget’s set timeframes, which may be off or may not fit every  child in every culture.  iii. There is also a pushback against this theory from ​non­Piagetians:​ theorists who  argue that Piaget got some things right but that his theory needs considerable  revision; they give more emphasis to information processing that involves attention,  memory, and strategies; they also seek to provide more precise explanations of  cognitive changes (Santrock, p. 96).  B. Cognitive Changes in Adulthood  a. Realistic and Pragmatic Thinking: Idealism decreases.  b. Reflective and Realistic Thinking: Thought moves away from polarities like good/bad and  towards gradients of multiple understandings.  c. Cognition and Emotion: Adults become more aware that emotions have the ability to highly  influence their thought processes and decision­making.  d. postformal thought:​ thought that is reflective, realistic, and contextual; provisional;  realistic; and open to emotions and subjective (Santrock, p. 97)  e. Wisdom:   i. wisdom: ​expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent  judgment about important matters (Santrock, p. 98)  ii. Researchers, namely Paul Baltes and colleagues, have found that   1. high levels of wisdom are rare  2. the time from of late adolescence and early adulthood is the main age  window for wisdom to emerge  3. factors other than age are critical for wisdom to develop to a high level  4. personality­related factors, such as openness to experience and creativity,  are better predictors of wisdom than cognitive factors such as intelligence  iii. College students and other adults have been measured on a scale with three  dimensions: a cognitive scale (cognition), a reflective scale (empathy), and an  affective scale (emotion). 


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