Week 2 ANTH 1001
Popular in Introduction To Biological Anthropology
Laura Castro Lindarte
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Popular in Biology/Anthropology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by W. Andrew Barr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Biological Anthropology in Biology/Anthropology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
September 5, 2016 Labor Day (no class) September 7, 2016 Darwin, Wallace & Natural Selection ● Both Darwin and Wallace looked at available information and s ynthesized it to come up with framework of natural selection ● Erasmus Darwin: ○ Charles Darwin’s grandfather ○ Naturalist and poet hat wrote about natural selection ■ Talked about connection of species, competition and importance of environment ● Charles Darwin: 18091882 ○ Born to an upperclass British family and ent to medical school and was exposed to Lamarck’s ideas → not good at medical school so he decided to study theology (study of religion) ○ At age of 22 he graduated and was recommended to travel as naturalist in H MS Beagle with captain Robert FitzRoy ■ They were most interested in taking specimens from South America ■ Darwin was on HMS Beagle from 1831 to 1836 ● Experiences on HMS Beagle that influence Darwin: 1. Observation of diversity of flora and fauna a. He got an appreciation for diversity 2. Experienced earthquake in Chile a. Made him interested in geology (specifically how the earth changes) 3. In Argentina, Darwin collected fossils of extinct animal hich made him become interested in why they disappeared and how biology changes 4. Observation of diversity in ground finches across the Galapagos Islands ( volcanic islands off the coast of Ecuador), noticed that: a. Animals and plants were similar to those in mainland b. Other mainland animals did not exist at all on the islands i. Large mammals were not found on islands c. Some animals on the islands were not found on the mainland i. Giant tortoise was not found on mainland d. Different species existed on different islands i. Believed this was because of environment ii. Ex: dry land tortoise had saddle shell to be able to get food from high places while other tortoises had done shape shells because they were able to find food on the ground iii. Ex: Darwin collected 13 finches from islands with similarities but many differences, were all different species 1. Beaks matched food available in islands where they lived 2. One ancestor finch probably got to island and underwent adaptive radiation based on environment 5. His reading of Thomas Malthus’s essay on “Principle of Population” a. Malthus discussed population growth because based on his calculations the uman population can grow in exponential rate hile the amount of food cannot meaning that sooner or later we would run out of food for everyone b. In reality world populations were stable because of “struggle for existence” limited resources limited how much population could grow) c. Darwin concluded that INDIVIDUALS of species with adaptations are more likely to reproduce/survive 6. Observation of the power of artificial selection to produce different domesticated animals a. Darwin looked at the variation in the domesticated pigeons ● Darwin develops his theory of Natural Selection: ○ 1836: Darwin came back from HMS Beagle and married his cousin ○ 1844: Darwin prepares his first lengthy “sketch” on his the f evolution by means of natural selection ■ 20 years pass because he publishes it because he did not want to upset religion and his wife who was devote ■ His daughter Anne Darwin died which lifted a little weight off his shoulders ○ 1858: Darwin received a anuscript by Alfred Russel Wallace who had CONCEIVED EVOLUTION BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION → looking for advice ■ Shows that evolution was a product of its time because two people came up with the same idea ○ 1858: Both present a paper to the LINNEAN SOCIETY IN LONDON t hat showed the theory ■ Darwin then decided to publish a book about it ● “On the Origins of the Species By Means of Natural Selection” (1859) ○ Biological evolution is ACT ■ Many agreed with this ○ Common descent with modification ■ Proposed mechanism of how ALL species evolved from one ancestor ■ Animals that had more similar features were closely related meaning that they had a more recent common ancestor ○ Gradualism: gradual change through time ○ NATURAL SELECTION IS MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION ● Natural selection: the mechanism ○ Observation: species produce more offspring than can be supported ↓ ○ Deduction: limited resources lead to competition ○ Observation: there is biological variation among individuals in species. The characteristics of some seem more favorable adapted to the environment ↓ ○ Deduction: different survival and reproduction of those with better traits. They are more fit. ○ Deduction: these individuals are more likely to reproduce and those traits will get INHERITED by offspring. Traits will become more common over time ○ Fitness: reproductive success how many offsprings an individual has) ■ Not physical fitness ○ Adaptation: changes in response to new/varying environment pressure ■ In evolution, changes occur to a whole population not just individuals ■ Occurs in response to articular environmental conditions ■ Geographic isolation can lead to new species ○ Examples: ■ Pepper month in England: a. Preindustrialization: light were more advantaged because could blend better into trees so would survive more and majority of population was light b. Postindustrialization: dark becomes more advantaged because can blend into dirty trees so there is a shift in the population to prefer dark moths ■ Finches in Galapagos: a. Medium ground Finch with small beak begin to die off during a drought because there were less small seeds to eat so big beak individuals were more likely to get food b. After drought the average beak depth of finch is longer c. Population shifts again to favor smaller beaks because the small seeds began to appear again and other large beak individuals came from other islands which created competition
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