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Week 2

by: Laura Castro Lindarte
Laura Castro Lindarte

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No notes for Monday because there was no class due to labor day.
Introduction To Biological Anthropology
W. Andrew Barr
Class Notes
Biological, Anthropology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by W. Andrew Barr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Biological Anthropology in Biology/Anthropology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
September 5, 2016    Labor Day (no class)          September 7, 2016  Darwin, Wallace & Natural Selection  ● Both Darwin and Wallace looked at available information and s ​ ynthesized it to come up  with framework of natural selection  ● Erasmus Darwin:   ○ Charles Darwin’s grandfather   ○ Naturalist and poet ​ hat wrote about natural selection   ■ Talked about connection of species, competition and importance of  environment   ● Charles Darwin: ​1809­1882   ○ Born to an upper­class British family and ​ ent to medical school and was  exposed to Lamarck’s ideas → ​not good at medical school so he decided to  study theology (study of religion)   ○ At age of 22 he graduated and was recommended to travel as naturalist in H ​ MS  Beagle with captain Robert FitzRoy  ■ They were most interested in taking specimens from South America   ■ Darwin was on HMS Beagle from 1831 to 1836   ● Experiences on HMS Beagle that influence Darwin:   1. Observation of diversity of flora and fauna   a. He got an appreciation for diversity  2. Experienced earthquake in Chile   a. Made him interested in geology (specifically how the earth changes)   3. In Argentina, Darwin ​collected fossils of extinct animal​ hich made him become  interested in why they disappeared and how biology changes   4. Observation of ​diversity in ground finches across the Galapagos Islands (​ volcanic  islands off the coast of Ecuador), noticed that:  a. Animals and plants were similar to those in mainland  b. Other mainland animals did not exist at all on the islands   i. Large mammals were not found on islands   c. Some animals on the islands were not found on the mainland   i. Giant tortoise was not found on mainland   d. Different species existed on different islands   i. Believed this was because of environment   ii. Ex: dry land tortoise had saddle shell to be able to get food from  high places while other tortoises had done shape shells because  they were able to find food on the ground   iii. Ex: Darwin collected 13 finches from islands with similarities but  many differences, were all different species  1. Beaks matched food available in islands where they lived   2. One ancestor finch probably got to island and underwent  adaptive radiation based on environment  5. His reading of ​Thomas Malthus’s essay on “Principle of Population”   a. Malthus discussed population growth because based on his calculations  the ​ uman population can grow in exponential rate​ hile the amount of  food cannot meaning that sooner or later we would run out of food for  everyone   b. In reality world populations were stable because of “struggle for  existence” ​ limited resources limited how much population could grow)   c. Darwin concluded that ​ INDIVIDUALS of species with adaptations are  more likely to reproduce/survive  6. Observation of the ​power of artificial selection to produce different domesticated  animals   a. Darwin looked at the variation in the domesticated pigeons   ● Darwin develops his theory of Natural Selection:  ○ 1836: ​Darwin came back from HMS Beagle and married his cousin   ○ 1844: Darwin prepares his first lengthy “sketch” on his the​ f evolution by  means of natural selection   ■ 20 years pass because he publishes it because he did not want to upset  religion and his wife who was devote   ■ His daughter Anne Darwin died which lifted a little weight off his shoulders   ○ 1858: ​Darwin received a​ anuscript by Alfred Russel Wallace who had  CONCEIVED EVOLUTION BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION → ​looking  for advice  ■ Shows that evolution was a product of its time because two people came  up with the same idea   ○ 1858: Both present a paper to the LINNEAN SOCIETY IN LONDON t ​ hat showed  the theory   ■ Darwin then decided to publish a book about it   ● “On the Origins of the Species By Means of Natural Selection” (1859)   ○ Biological evolution is​ ACT   ■ Many agreed with this   ○ Common descent with modification   ■ Proposed mechanism of how ALL species evolved from one ancestor   ■ Animals that had more similar features were closely related meaning that  they had a more recent common ancestor   ○ Gradualism: gradual change through time   ○ NATURAL SELECTION IS MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION       ● Natural selection: the mechanism   ○ Observation: species produce more offspring than can be supported  ↓  ○  ​Deduction: limited resources lead to competition     ○ Observation: there is biological variation among individuals in species. The  characteristics of some seem more favorable adapted to the environment  ↓   ○ Deduction: different survival and reproduction of those with better traits. They are  more fit.   ○ Deduction: these individuals are more likely to reproduce and those traits will get  INHERITED by offspring. Traits will become more common over time     ○ Fitness: reproductive success​ how many offsprings an individual has)   ■ Not physical fitness   ○ Adaptation: changes in response to new/varying environment pressure   ■ In evolution, changes occur to a whole population not just individuals  ■ Occurs in response to ​ articular environmental conditions   ■  Geographic isolation can lead to new species   ○ Examples:   ■ Pepper month in England:  a. Pre­industrialization: light were more advantaged because could  blend better into trees so would survive more and majority of  population was light   b. Post­industrialization: dark becomes more advantaged because  can blend into dirty trees so there is a shift in the population to  prefer dark moths    ■ Finches in Galapagos:   a. Medium ground Finch with small beak begin to die off during a  drought because there were less small seeds to eat so big beak  individuals were more likely to get food   b. After drought the average beak depth of finch is longer   c. Population shifts again to favor smaller beaks because the small  seeds began to appear again and other large beak individuals  came from other islands which created competition 


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