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by: Sarah Bredall

Genetics_Lecture_7.pdf BIO 340

Marketplace > Humboldt State University > Biology > BIO 340 > Genetics_Lecture_7 pdf
Sarah Bredall
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About this Document

Genetics Lecture #7 of Week 3 Other older lecture notes will be uploaded soon.
Heidi Rutschow
Class Notes
mendelian genetics, CentralDogma, recombination, frequency, linked, genes, quantitative, traits, phenotype, genotype




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Bredall on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 340 at Humboldt State University taught by Heidi Rutschow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Humboldt State University.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Genetics Lecture 7 Recombination Frequency Example: Genes A & B are linked and are 10 m.u. (map units) apart. If cross AABB x aabb is made, and the F1is test crossed, what is the expected distribution of the genotypes in the progeny? Answer: If 1 is test crossed, our new parentals are AaBb x aabb. These are the four expected progeny. AaBb – 45% - Parental aabb – 45% - Parental 1% Recombo Freq = 1 m.u. Aabb – 5% - Recombinant aaBb – 5% - Recombinant We first convert the 10 m.u. to a percentage, 10%. This 10% accounts for the two recombinant progeny since it is under 50%. Before moving forward, we must first identify the two parental progeny before identifying the two recombinant progeny. Since it is given in the question that A & B are linked, it is safe to assume that the two progeny that are exactly genotypically alike the 1 (AaBb) and the test cross (aabb) are the parentals, and the other two (Aabb & aaBb) are the recombinants. Now, we can take the 10% from the map units, divide this by two to account for both recombinant progenies, giving them 5% each, as shown above. This means the parentals are left with the remaining 90%. Divide that bytwo, and you get 45% each. We use percentages in this example since no numerical data was given. This is also an example of a “cis” linkage because the question states the genotypes of the original P-Generation. This also means A & B and a & b are both on the same sides of the chromosome. Genetic & Physical Map Correspondence • Genetic maps and Physical maps are roughly proportionate to each other • Yet distance mapped is not always similar • Linked genes almost never sort independently • However, recombinants in meiosis can separate linked genes Central Dogma and Mendelian Genetics How each idea differentiated after the discovery of Mendelian genetics Mendelian Genetics Complex Genetics Systemic Genetics + One gene + Many genes + Many Genes + One trait + One trait + Many traits Mendel proved that one gene can control at least one trait, therefore was considered the “father” of genetics. We eventually learned that sometimes multiple genes are need to control just one trait (i.e. It takes 12 different genes toproduce our eye colors), and others need multiple genes to produce multiple traits. Terms Multiple allelism – geneshave more than two alleles. Polymorphism – when more than 2 distinct phenotypes are present in a population due to multiple allelism. Discrete traits – one gene produces one trait, not a blend of traits. (i.e. A dominant blue plant plus a recessive red plant equals a heterozygous blue plant, NOT purple plant). Non-discrete traits – opposite of discrete. Two traits create a large variety of new blended traits. (i.e. A blue plants plus a red plant equals multiple shade of purple colored plants, as well as a few red and blue plants like the parentals). These fall into a continuum called quantitative traits. Quantitative traits- is a measurable phenotype that depends on the cumulative actions of many genes and the environment. When these phenotypes are mapped out, they create a “normal distribution bell-curve”. Look up “red and white kernel color, quantitative bell curve” for a great example.


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