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RAT ( edited version)

by: Sara Ali

RAT ( edited version) BIOL1302/10025

Sara Ali

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RAT 2, more completed RAT will be posted soon
General Biology 2
Rachel Hudspeth
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Ali on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1302/10025 at University of Houston Downtown taught by Rachel Hudspeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston Downtown.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
RAT 2 Concept 17.2 •The textbook means when it says, “Viruses lead a kind of borrowed life," because viruses are capable of causing many diseases, researchers in the late 1800s saw a parallel with bacteria and proposed that viruses were the simplest living forms. Most biologists studying the viruses today would likely agree that they are not alive but exist in a shady area between life-forms and chemicals • Viruses are composed of two types of macromolecules which are nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. • Two types of polynucleotides that a virus could carry are DNA and RNA, • Viral capsid is the protein shell enclosing the viral genome and Viral envelopes are derived from the membranes of the host cell, they contain host cell phospholipids and membrane proteins. • For the influenza virus, the origin of the viral envelope is that they have different RNA molecules, each wrapped in a helical capsid, and an outer envelope studded with glycoprotein spikes. • Two different origins for the proteins or the glycoproteins found within the viral envelope is that glycoproteins are proteins with carbohydrates covalently attached. • Bacteriophages are many of the most complex capsids found among the viruses that infect bacteria. The first phages included seven that infect E.coli, such as Type (T1), Type 2 (T2), Type3 and so forth. Their capsids have elongated icosahedral heads enclosing their DNA. Attached to the head is a protein tail piece with fibers by which the phages attach to bacterium. Concept 17.2 • a. When virus enters a host cell, it releases the viral DNA and capsid proteins. • b. After the viral genome is released into a host cell, the host enzymes replicate the viral genome. • c. The host cells transcribe the viral genome into mRNA, because this is then used for protein synthesis. • d. The viral proteins RAT 2 • 2. Many plant and animal viruses can enter the cell through a process called endocytosis, a process in which the cell membrane engulfs and surrounds the entire virus. Some enveloped viruses enter the cell through a process when the viral envelope fuses directly into the cell membrane. • • 3. In the Lytic cycle consists of virulent or temperate phage, destruction of host DNA, Production of new phages, and Lysis of host cell causes release of progeny phages. In the Lysogenic cycle consists of a template phage, genome integrates itself inside the bacterial chromosome as prophage, which is 1) is replicated and passed on to daughter cells and 2) can be induced to leave the chromosome and initiate a lytic cycle. • • In the Lytic cycle the host cell is destroyed. • Prophage is formed in the lysogenic cycle. • Viral DNA is replicated in the lysogenic cycle. • 4. Viral proteins that extend from the viral envelope bind to specific receptor molecules on the host cell, prompting viral entry into the cell. • 5. The mRNA is the structure within the animal host cell that synthesizes glycoproteins. Concept 17.3 1. How do each of the following processes contributing to the emergence of new viral disease : a. Mutation of existing viruses : b. Dissemination from an isolated human population: c. Crossing the species barrier: 2. Influenza viruses have the following names H1N1 or H5N1 : a. The name of the enzyme that the letter H refers to is b. The name of the enzyme that the letter N refers to is 3. Birds, bats, and other animals are referred to as viral vectors because 4. It’s important that the Global Health Organization monitors the appearance of viruses in migrating bird populations, because Concept 24.2 RAT 2 1. The general characteristics of a prokaryotic cell are that 1) they lack an organized nucleus and membrane-bound organelles 2) Prokaryotic DNA is found in a central part of the called the nucleoid and 3) the cell wall of prokaryotic cell acts an extra layer of protection, helps maintain cell shape, and prevents dehydration. 2. Both Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic cells because they both have no nucleus and membrane- bound organelles. 3. Gram-negative cell wall is different from Gram- positive cell wall because Gram Positive bacteria has a thick cell wall layer and Gram negative bacteria has a thin cell wall layer. The Peptidoglycan layer in Gram positive is thick and Gram Negative is thin. The outer membrane is absent in gram positive and its present in Gram negative. 4. Bacterial capsule is a sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein that can help cell adherence and/or evasion of a host’s immune system. 5. An endospore is to allow the survival of bacteria’s cell lines through harsh conditions that would kill a member of species. These conditions include starvation, ultraviolet light, desiccation and chemical damage. An endospore is unusually small and largely dehydrated by a bacterium with a germ cell wall, surrounded by walls of protein and peptidoglycan that cover it. 6. A fimbrae are hairlike appendages that help cells adhere to other cells or to a substrate. A capsule is a sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein that can help cell adherence and/or evasion of a host’s immune system. 7. Virulence factor are molecules produced by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa), that contribute to the pathogenicity of the organism and enable it to achieve the following: RAT 2 colonization of a niche in the host (attachments to cells). A capsule and a fimbrae are both virulence factors because capsule 8. A heterotrophic bacteria consist of both chemohetrotrophic and photohetrotroph. Photoheterotroph is unique to certain aquatic and salt-loving prokaryotes, their energy source is light and their carbon source are organic compounds. Chemoheterotroph ’s energy source is organic compounds, their carbon source is organic compounds and the types of organisms that they include are many prokaryotes and protists ;fungi; animals and some plants. Photoautotrophic bacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes (for example cyanobacteria), plants, certain protists (for example algae) , their light source is light and their carbon source is carbon dioxide, Hydrogen carbonate or another related compound. 9. Prokaryotes undergo a type of cell division which is called binary fission, meaning it refers to this process and to the asexual reproduction of single- celled eukaryotes, such as the amoeba. However, the process in eukaryotes involves mitosis; the process in prokaryotes does not. Concept 24.3 1. Three factors that contribute to genetic variation in bacterial populations are transformation, transduction and conjugation. 2. The probability that a DNA mutation will occur with an E.coli gene each time a cell reproduces is about one in 10 million. 3. Transformation is a major source of variation in prokaryotic populations, where the genotype and possibly the phenotype of a prokaryotic cell are altered by the uptake of foreign DNA from its sorroundings. Transformation occurs when a nonpathogenic cell takes up a piece of DNA carrying the allele for pathogenicity and replaces its own allele with the foreign allele, an exchange RAT 2 of homologous DNA segments. In Transduction, the phages carry prokaryotic genes from one host cell to another cell. In most cases, transduction results from accidents that occur during the phage replicative cycle. A virus that carries prokaryotic DNA may not be able to replicate because it lacks some or all of its own genetic material. 4. A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a chromosomal cell, which is separate from the rest of the part of the cell. Plasmids usually exist in structural cells and in bacteria. Genes present in plasmids provide the cell with genetic resistance such as antibiotic resistance. An F plasmid is that the F factor in its plasmid form, cells which contain the F plasmid , are designated as F^+ cells, they function as DNA donors during conjugation. Bacteria also have resistance genes, which code for enzymes that specifically destroy or otherwise hinder the effectiveness of certain antibiotics, such as tetracyline and or ampicillin. Resistance genes are often carried by plasmids known as R plasmids. R plasmids carry ten times genes for resistance to that of many antibiotics. 5. Steps involved in the transfer of a plasmid from a donor cell to a recipent cell: 1) A cell carrying an F plasmid ( an F positive cell) forms a mating bridge with a F negative cell. One strand of the plasmid DNA ’s breaks at the point marked by the arrowhead. 2) Using the unbroken strand as a template, the cell synthesisizes a new strand. Meanwhile, the broken strand peels off and one end enters the F negative cell. There synthesis of its complementary strand begins. 3) DNA replication continues in both donor and recipient cells, as the transferred plasmid strand moves farther onto the recipient cell. 4) Once DNA transfer and synthesis are now completed, the plasmid in the recipient cell RAT 2 circularizes. The recipent cell is now a recombinant F positive cell. Concept 24.5 1) Exotoxins are proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms. Cholera, is a dangerous diarrheal disease, is caused by an exotoxin secreted by the proteobacterium Vibrio cholera. The exotoxin simulates intestinal cells to release chloride ions into the gut, and water follows by osmosis. Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide components of the gram- negative bacteria. In contrast, to exotoxins, endotoxins are released only when the bacteria idea and their cell walls break down. 2) The role that transduction plays in the appearance of a highly virulent E.coli strain, E. coli


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