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psy 362 week 3

by: Tawanna Sanders

psy 362 week 3 362

Tawanna Sanders

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these notes covers how certain traits impact behavior
Psy Personality
Bethany garcia
Class Notes
Fundamental, attribution, Error, situationism, five, factor, model
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tawanna Sanders on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 362 at Indiana State University taught by Bethany garcia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Psy Personality in Psychology (PSYC) at Indiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chapter 4: Person vs. Situation  The person, the situation, and the problem with individual differences o Social psychologists generally study the way a person or group of people respond  to their environment. This can be termed situationism and simply states that the  situation is the most important factor in determining our behavior. o Personality psychologists, on the other hand, are more interested in the way  individual difference, or traits, affect the way a person behaves.   Milgram replication study continued o It tells us that the situation is very important, but it also tell us something else­  something that I think the social psychologist miss out on, and something which I  think is far more interesting than the fact that a lot of the subjects’ behaviors was  influenced by the experimenter. o I think the interesting question is, “Why were some people NOT influenced by the urging of the experimenter to continue?” What is different about these  individuals?   Fundamental Attribution Error o Fundamental Attribution Error  We overestimate dispositional (trait) factors when determining another  person’s behavior and underestimate situational factors  The opposite is true when we are analyzing out own behavior  Trait Approach vs. Situationalism o Trait approach  Theoretical view that focuses on individual differences in personality and  behavior, and the psychological processes behind them  Based on correlational research  Good for comparing individuals  Hard to find causation  Focuses exclusively on INDIVIDUAL DIFFERNECES  No absolute zero for personality traits  Not concerned with universal aspect of human nature o Problems with the Trait approach  People are inconsistent!  If traits alone determined behavior, there would be no variability in behavior  The situation matters o Implicit (unknown) social rules­social norms o Who is present in the situation  But, people like to think of themselves as consistent o Consistent personality associated with better mental health,  maturity o In general, people become more consistent as they age  What are the pros (reliable) and cons (rigid) of this  The person­Situation Debate o 1968: “Personality and Assessment” published  Walter Mischel  Behavior too inconsistent from one situation to the next to allow  individual differences to be categorized accurately by traits  “personality doesn’t exit” and assessment is impossible o This causes a lot of anger and resentment  Consistency Controversy o According to Funder, there are three central issues:  1. Whether the personality of the individual transcends the immediate  situation and define a constant guide for action, thoughts, behavior  2. Whether the common intuitions about people we all have are correct or  fundamentally flawed  3. Why do we (psychologists) bother to argue this point for decades? Why  is it so important? o Situationist Argument  1. There is an upper limit to the amount you can predict behavior based on personality traits, and that upper limit is LOW  2. Consequentially, situations are more important than personality traits in  determining behavior  3. Therefore, personality assessment is a huge waste of time. Everyday  intuitions about people are flawed and worthless.  o Predictability  Situationist says:  There are no personality trait that can be used to predict behavior  with enough accuracy to be useful  Response to Situationist:  Mischel may have utilized an unfair lit review o Even if this is inaccurate, we can still assume, as Nisbett  claimed, that the upper limit for how well traits predict  behavior is .40  Much of the research Mischel reviewed were laboratory studies o Better data can be obtained through research in the natural  environment  Traits are better at predicting how a person will behavior in general rather than a specific point in time­strongest  Which of these arguments do you think is the strongest? o Is a correlation of .40 small?  Based on the Binomial Effect Sze Display, a correlation of .40 is  equivalent to 70%   This is assuming the 50% = chance  Accurate assessment of can increase likelihood of correct behavior o Predictability based on situation  Broad literature found that situation and behavior have a .21 correlation  Funder’s research estimated the correlation closer to that of traits  and behavior   Either way, situation hasn’t been shown to predict behavior any better than traits and at time, it is much weaker predictor  Support for traits as predictors o If situation is the only important factor, why do people act differently in the same  situation? o There are 17,953 words in the English language to describe personality traits.  Based on assumption that the importance of a construct can be measured by the  number of words used to describe it, personality can be considered significant  Who cares? o Personality traits are associated with life outcomes such as health, marital  satisfaction, and career success  What kind of relationship is the one between traits and life outcomes?  Life outcomes associated with personality Traits Individual Interperson Institutional  al Extraversion Happy,  Acceptance,  Satisfaction, grateful,  successful  long life dating and  Community  involvement,  relationships leadership , status Agreeableness Religious,  Acceptance  Social  forgivenes and  interests, job  s, humor,  satisfaction attainment,  long life avoid  criminal bx Conscientiousne Religious,  Family and  Successful,  ss healthy,  dating  conservative,  long life,  satisfaction avoid  avoidance  criminal bx of sub  abuse Neuroticism Unhappy,  poor Dissatisfactio poor  n, criminal bx coping Openness Forgivenes Artistic,  s, sub  liberal abuse


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