Music 40, week 3
Music 40, week 3 Music 40
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jesyka on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 40 at California State University Fresno taught by Lenore Hiebert in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Theory and Literature I in Music at California State University Fresno.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Music 40, music theory and Lit. Week 3 Day 7 - An interval is the distance between two pitches. • Harmonic interval- refers to two notes played at the same time (simultaneously) • Melodic interval - refers to two notes played in succession (1 after the other) - There are 2 parts to identifying an interval: • First is the distance of note names between the two notes • Second is the quality of the interval, which generally relates to the number of half steps between the notes - Instead of saying at the same time or an interval of 1, we say unison; and the same note in a different octave is referred to as an octave interval or 8th - Intervals smaller than an octave are referred to as simple intervals, larger are referred to as compound intervals Rules to ID intervals • General interval: quantity (I.e a fifth, a third, etc) • Specific interval: quality. 1 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 - 1,4,5,8 are the only perfects - 2,3,6,7 are minor or major * All intervals can be diminished and augmented • When the upper note is in the major key of the lower note, BUT the lower note is not in the major key of the upper note the interval is "major" When the upper note is not in the major key of the lower note, BUT the lower note is in the • major key of the upper note, the interval is "minor" • When the upper note is in the major key of the lower note and the lower note is in the major key of the upper note the interval is "perfect" • Diminished - 1/2 step SMALLER than a minor or perfect interval • Augmented- 1/2 step LARGER than a major or perfect interval *Take off one accidental from a potential Aug. or dim. Interval and discover if it is major/minor/perfect then add the accidental back in and decide if the interval is larger/smaller Day 9 The relationship between Augmented-Major-minor-diminished & Augmented-Perfect- diminished intervals nd rd th th Remember that only 2 ,3 ,6 & 7 can be minor or Major, and only 1 (or prime), 4 , 5 , and 8 (or octave) can be perfect; but all intervals can be Augmented or Diminished A diminished is a half-step smaller than a minor, a minor= ½ step smaller than Major, Major= ½ step smaller than Augmented. A diminished is ½ step smaller than perfect, Augmented= ½ step larger than perfect Interval Inversions Any interval inversion will follow a predictable pattern, diminished (d) will always become Augmented (A), Major (M) to minor (m), minor to Major, and perfect always remains perfect d/ m M A/+ P d6 m2 M6 A3 P5 A/+ M m d/ P A3 M7 m3 d6 P4 2 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 o A written as +; d written as ˚ o All inversionsthhould add up to 9 rd A 6 interval inverts into a 3 interval: 6+3=9 Tips for recognizing interval quantity on the fly After a while it becomes important to recognize interval sizes quickly A 2 will always be two notes right atop each other, so much so that they have to be slightly offset A 3 will be two stacked line or space notes, typically the two note heads will be touching out of proximity Recognizing a 4 will be easiest by noting it’s just larger than a third and it’s a combination of a line and a space note A 5 will skip a line or space, but will still be two line or space notes stacked, th with a 6 being just larger than that A 7 will skip two lines or spaces 3 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Some other ways of evaluating intervals if you want to double check yourself or cannot recall the major scales would be: Method 1 The counting method works and is always accurate even in compound intervals. It involves counting the number of half steps (or white and black keys) between two notes. The limitations of this method involve the time it takes, the accuracy required in counting, and the necessity to both memorize the number of half steps for each interval size and quality, as well as which notes only have one half step between them and not two (E-F, B-C) The chart below will give you the number of half steps in each interval up to an octave: size diminished minor Perfect Major Augmented 1st 0 2 2nd 0 1 2 3 3rd 2 3 4 5 th 4 4 5 6 5th 6 7 8 6th 7 8 9 10 7th 9 10 11 12 th 8 11 12 13 Method 2 This method works by comparing any interval to the C Major scale, or really to the closest white note interval, for instance if you know that D-E is Major, then adding or subtracting a half step with a sharp or flat would turn it minor or Augmented like D#-E is minor because it is a half-step smaller than the Major. o In order to use this method, you must know the white note intervals from memory. 4
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