Basic Chemistry for BIOL 1441
Basic Chemistry for BIOL 1441 BIOL 1441
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madalyn on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1441 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Shawn Christense in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chemistry 101 for Biology 1441 Saturday, September 10, 2016 4:25 PM This a review/refresherfor anyone who needs to review chemistry for BIOL 1441. It is also useful to freshmen or new comersto this class who don’t have A good/shaky chemistry background. Feel free to email for question or approach me in class; I am the girl with the green/blue hair that usually sits in the back(: ~EM~ email@example.com *NOTE: this coversthe chemistry in Biology 1441. Meaning, if you do not know what Electron shell is or how many they hold, this is the place for you! Chemistry Basics Proton. Has a The Atom positive charge Chemistry - study of change; study of chemical reactions Chemistry is fundamental for all sciences; including geology, Electron. Has a biology, and sometimeseven physics negative charge N Important numbers to remember: Important theory to keep in mind: P Avogadro's number: 6.01 x 10^23 1. All matter is made up of atoms P N *Some people use 6.02 instead of 6.01; E Watch what the professor tells you to use Orbit Shell. Sometimescalled sub-shells, shells Element Reading Rings, or orbitals. Neutron. Has This is the element Beryllium zero charge About the Atom: Atomic Number Electron(s) orbit in a ring, or shell or Tells you the number sub shell, around the nucleus. The Of protons and electrons. EX- beryllium has 4 electrons AND nucleus contains protons and Symbol 4 protons neutrons. The nucleus makes up most of the mass in the atom. Atomic Mass Often called Atomic Isotopes of Atoms Weight This is an isotope of Carbon called Carbon 14. An isotope is an atom of the To Find Number of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons: same element with a different number If you can subtract, you can find all of those! Of neutrons. Atomic Number gives you the number of BOTH Protons and Electrons. Easy. To find the number of neutrons, Simply subtract 4 from 9. There are 5 neutrons. To find the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons, it Is the same concept. Subtraction. EXCEPT,you have the same number of electrons AND protons. So, when you subtract, you get the number of neutrons. Easy, right? This is another format for elements. This is format is the most used one. So… here is what you should get: Atomic Mass Protons: 6 Neutrons: 8 (because 14-8=6) Electrons: 6 Easy as Pi (: (3.14…) Atomic Number Periodic Table Reading Rows that go left to right Are called PERIODS Columns that go up and down Groups are called families because they are similar Are called GROUPS to each other. They each have names. Chem. 101 Page 1 Columns that go up and down Groups are called families because they are similar Are called GROUPS to each other. They each have names. Group 1, or 1A, are called the Alkali metals Group 2, or 2A, are called the Alkali Earth metals These are used A LOT in biology, I advise you getting familiar with them. Group 17, or 17A, are called the Halogens, they are mostreactive; very violent. Group 18, or 18A, are called the Noble Gases. They are non-reactive.Very chill, bro. **BE AWARE** Hydrogen is NOT a metal. It is a GAS and it is NOT a part of the Alkali metals. Electrons Confused? Relax. Here is an example. Easy, right? Now, here comes what confuses a lot of people This is the element Argon, a noble gas, very chill. Argon has 18 protons and electrons and 22 neutrons. Electron Shells and Orbitals Shells hold electrons. It is the path the electrons take when orbiting the nucleus; hence why they are called orbitals. Electrons Capacity of a Shell First shell holds a max of 2 electrons Total of 2 Second shell holds a max of 6 electrons Total of 8 Third shell holds a max of 10 electrons Total of 18 ~VALENCE ELECTRONS~ Fourth shell holds a max of 14 electrons Total of 32 Valence Electrons are the outer-most electrons; they occupy the last shell. *it goes up to n 7, but for simplicity, we are going to 4. For Argon, very chill, it has 8 valence electrons. Plus, we shouldn’t go beyond 32 electronsin biology 1441 The easiest way to determine the number of valence electrons, is to look at the LAST number Electron Configuration of the group it is in. It is very easy once you recognize the pattern For example, Argon, very chill, is in Group 18. The last number in 18 is 8; therefore; the number of valence electrons is 8. Pink - s block Orange - p block **BE AWARE** Green - d block This only works in Groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. Want to find out how to do electron configuration? View the next set of notes ~* Questions? Comments? *~ Email me anytime for anything firstname.lastname@example.org I do live on campus(: Chem. 101 Page 2
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