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week 3 notes ( part 2 included)

by: Aunjela Latham

week 3 notes ( part 2 included) Public health 2000

Marketplace > Ohio University > Public health 2000 > week 3 notes part 2 included
Aunjela Latham

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About this Document

These notes are continued from the first set on Tuesday of this week
Intro to public health
Heather Harmon
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aunjela Latham on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Public health 2000 at Ohio University taught by Heather Harmon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Public Health   Heather Harmon  9.6.16    Epidemiology​ : the study of  the distribution and determinants of health­related states or events  in human populations, and the application of this study to ​prevent and control ​health problems.    Epi­ upon  Demos­ people  Logos­ study    ­Sports related injuries  ­Recklessness  ­Hygiene  ­Accidents  ­Infectious disease transmission  ­Substance use  ­Disasters ( natural and man­made)  ­War and violence    Framingham heart study­Massachusetts : Followed a population­ generation after generation (  how we get heart disease) later found out there are a variety of reasons as to why people get heart  disease.    Epidemiology is concerned with finding associations and relationships.   ­The diagnostic discipline of public health   ­Major part of public health’s assessment function   ● An observational science  ­investigates causes of diseases  ­identifies trends in disease occurrence  ­Evaluates effectiveness of medical and public health interventions    John Snow: father of epidemiology  ­leader in introducing anesthesia and medical hygiene  ­1854 cholera outbreak in London’s Soho District  ­ “Miasma Theory”   ­Traced the source  ● Contaminated water dumped into River Thames  ­Broad Street water pump  Epidemiologist:  ­collect info about disease status:  ● Who,What,Where,When, and Why?  ­Data used to prevent outbreaks  ­Determine effectiveness of prevention support    ­Epidemiologic surveillance  ­Contact tracing   ­Immunization  ­Identify infected  ­Quarantine if necessary    ★ Endemic​­ persistent, usual , ​expected​ health­related state or event in a defined population  over a given period of time.    ★ Epidemic­​ Health related state or event in a defined population ​above the expected​ over a  given period of time.    ★ Pandemic​­ Epidemic affecting a large number of people, ​globally​, many  countries,continents or regions.    The Importance of Rates    Rates allow for comparison of outbreaks at different times or in a different places    Rates:​ number of events in a given population over a period of time or given point in time  ● Natality ( birth), Morbidity ( sickness), Mortality or fatality ( death rates)    Cases: ​  people afflicted ( those who are sick)    Attack Rates​: Percentage of people who get sick in a given population ( lung cancer ex)    Morbidity Rates​: Frequency at which a disease appears in a population.    Mortality Rates:​ the number of deaths in a given area or period, or from a particular cause.    Population at Risk:​ those susceptible to particular disease or condition.      Morbidity Rates  Incidence Rate: number of NEW health related events or cases of a disease in a population at a  given time, divided by a total     Prevalence Rate: number of ​NEW ​and ​OLD​ cases in a given period of time, divided by total  number in that population    Crude and Age­Adjusted Rates  ● Crude Rates: denominator includes ​total population   ● Crude birth rate: number of lives births in a given year, divided by midyear population  ● Crude death rate: number of deaths in a given year from all causes , divided by midyear  population  ● CIA Fact book Crude Death Rates    Specific Rates  ● Measures morbidity and mortality for particular populations or diseases  ● Cause­specific mortality rate: measures death rate for a specific disease  ● Age­adjusted rates: used to make comparisons of relative risks across groups and over  time when groups differ in age structure    Standardized Measurements of Health Status of Populations    ● Mortality statistics: most reliable measure of population health status  ● Life Expectancy: average number of years a person is expected to live  Socio economic status  refers to :  ­Education  ­Occupation  ­Income levels   = determining factors of life expectancy     ★ Black men have lowest life expectancy   ★ The southern united states is has the highest rate of poverty also low life expectancy  because of lack of access to health care   Years of Potential Life Lost    ● Years of Potential Life Lost( YPLL):​ number of years lost when death occurs before  one’s life expectancy  ● Subtract person’s age at death from his or her life expectancy  ● Difficult to determine because life expectancy changes at different ages  ● Age 75 is often used in calculations  ● Weight death of young person as counting more than death of old    Source of Secondary Data   Secondary data​ ­ data collected by someone else, possibly for another person  ● Useful in planning of public health programs and facilities  ● U.S Census  ­Enumeration of the population  ­Taken every 10 years   ­Gather data on race, age, income, employment, education.dwelling type, other    Reporting of Birth, Death, and Diseases     Notifiable diseases: infectious disease in which health officials request or require reporting; can  become epidemic    Reported to CDC via National Electronic Disease Surveillance  System ( NEDSS)     Various challenges to maintaining accurate data    ­AIDS/HIV  ­Anthrax  ­Chlamydia    Communicable vs Noncommunicable     Communicable​­( infectious ) disease those diseases for which biological agents or their products  are the cause and that are transmissible from one individual to another  Noncommunicable​­( non infectious) disease those illnesses that cannot be transmitted from one  person to another    Comorbidities­multiple diseases or problems      Diseases classified by duration of symptoms   Acute  ­three months    ­Ex: common cold   ←Chronic  ­ Longer than three months   ­ Ex: asthma    Communicable Diseases    Infectivity: ability of a biological agent to either and grow in the host    Agent:​ Cause of disease of health problem  Host:​ susceptible person or organism invaded by an infectious  Environment: ​factors that inhibit or promote disease transmission    MUST HAVE ALL THREE OF THESE THINGS TO BE COMMUNICABLE!    Pathogenicity: ​capability of a communicable agent to cause disease in a susceptible host  ● Pathogen­anything that can cause disease  Bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, rickettsiae ,prions,yeast, Nematoda and protozoa ← agents to  communicable diseases    Chain of infection   Pathogen → reservoir→  portal of exit → Transmission → portal of entry → establishment of  infection in new host   1. Pathogen­ disease causing agent  2. Reservoir: favorable environment for infectious agents to live and grow   3. Portal of Exit : path by which agent leaves host   4. Transmission: how pathogens are passed from reservoir to next host   5. Portal of entry : where agent enters susceptible host   6. New Host Susceptible to new infection being established     Modes of Transmission    Direct transmission ​­ immediate transfer of disease agent   ­touching,biting,kissing,sexual intercourse    Indirect transmission​­ transmission involving an intermediate step  ­Airborne, vehicle­borne ( fomite­touching an object and leaving “something” there),  vector­borne, biological    Infectious Diseases = Communicable Diseases ( CD)   ● CD’s have dropped in Developed Nations  1. Immunizations  2. Antibiotics  ● New CD’s still emerge  ● AIDS,MDR­TB,MRSA,Bird Flu,others    ● CDs still a major player  ● Elderly   ● Newborns  ● Chronically ill : secondary infections  Infamous killers  ● Bubonic plague  ● Tuberculosis  ● Smallpox  ● Cholera  ● Typhoid “Mary” ­ the chef who cooked in other people's home and they would die after  they cooked for them  ● Typhus  ● Yellow fever  ● Diphtheria  ● Influenza  ● Measles     


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