week 3 notes ( part 2 included)
week 3 notes ( part 2 included) Public health 2000
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aunjela Latham on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Public health 2000 at Ohio University taught by Heather Harmon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Public Health Heather Harmon 9.6.16 Epidemiology : the study of the distribution and determinants of healthrelated states or events in human populations, and the application of this study to prevent and control health problems. Epi upon Demos people Logos study Sports related injuries Recklessness Hygiene Accidents Infectious disease transmission Substance use Disasters ( natural and manmade) War and violence Framingham heart studyMassachusetts : Followed a population generation after generation ( how we get heart disease) later found out there are a variety of reasons as to why people get heart disease. Epidemiology is concerned with finding associations and relationships. The diagnostic discipline of public health Major part of public health’s assessment function ● An observational science investigates causes of diseases identifies trends in disease occurrence Evaluates effectiveness of medical and public health interventions John Snow: father of epidemiology leader in introducing anesthesia and medical hygiene 1854 cholera outbreak in London’s Soho District “Miasma Theory” Traced the source ● Contaminated water dumped into River Thames Broad Street water pump Epidemiologist: collect info about disease status: ● Who,What,Where,When, and Why? Data used to prevent outbreaks Determine effectiveness of prevention support Epidemiologic surveillance Contact tracing Immunization Identify infected Quarantine if necessary ★ Endemic persistent, usual , expected healthrelated state or event in a defined population over a given period of time. ★ Epidemic Health related state or event in a defined population above the expected over a given period of time. ★ Pandemic Epidemic affecting a large number of people, globally, many countries,continents or regions. The Importance of Rates Rates allow for comparison of outbreaks at different times or in a different places Rates: number of events in a given population over a period of time or given point in time ● Natality ( birth), Morbidity ( sickness), Mortality or fatality ( death rates) Cases: people afflicted ( those who are sick) Attack Rates: Percentage of people who get sick in a given population ( lung cancer ex) Morbidity Rates: Frequency at which a disease appears in a population. Mortality Rates: the number of deaths in a given area or period, or from a particular cause. Population at Risk: those susceptible to particular disease or condition. Morbidity Rates Incidence Rate: number of NEW health related events or cases of a disease in a population at a given time, divided by a total Prevalence Rate: number of NEW and OLD cases in a given period of time, divided by total number in that population Crude and AgeAdjusted Rates ● Crude Rates: denominator includes total population ● Crude birth rate: number of lives births in a given year, divided by midyear population ● Crude death rate: number of deaths in a given year from all causes , divided by midyear population ● CIA Fact book Crude Death Rates Specific Rates ● Measures morbidity and mortality for particular populations or diseases ● Causespecific mortality rate: measures death rate for a specific disease ● Ageadjusted rates: used to make comparisons of relative risks across groups and over time when groups differ in age structure Standardized Measurements of Health Status of Populations ● Mortality statistics: most reliable measure of population health status ● Life Expectancy: average number of years a person is expected to live Socio economic status refers to : Education Occupation Income levels = determining factors of life expectancy ★ Black men have lowest life expectancy ★ The southern united states is has the highest rate of poverty also low life expectancy because of lack of access to health care Years of Potential Life Lost ● Years of Potential Life Lost( YPLL): number of years lost when death occurs before one’s life expectancy ● Subtract person’s age at death from his or her life expectancy ● Difficult to determine because life expectancy changes at different ages ● Age 75 is often used in calculations ● Weight death of young person as counting more than death of old Source of Secondary Data Secondary data data collected by someone else, possibly for another person ● Useful in planning of public health programs and facilities ● U.S Census Enumeration of the population Taken every 10 years Gather data on race, age, income, employment, education.dwelling type, other Reporting of Birth, Death, and Diseases Notifiable diseases: infectious disease in which health officials request or require reporting; can become epidemic Reported to CDC via National Electronic Disease Surveillance System ( NEDSS) Various challenges to maintaining accurate data AIDS/HIV Anthrax Chlamydia Communicable vs Noncommunicable Communicable( infectious ) disease those diseases for which biological agents or their products are the cause and that are transmissible from one individual to another Noncommunicable( non infectious) disease those illnesses that cannot be transmitted from one person to another Comorbiditiesmultiple diseases or problems Diseases classified by duration of symptoms Acute three months Ex: common cold ←Chronic Longer than three months Ex: asthma Communicable Diseases Infectivity: ability of a biological agent to either and grow in the host Agent: Cause of disease of health problem Host: susceptible person or organism invaded by an infectious Environment: factors that inhibit or promote disease transmission MUST HAVE ALL THREE OF THESE THINGS TO BE COMMUNICABLE! Pathogenicity: capability of a communicable agent to cause disease in a susceptible host ● Pathogenanything that can cause disease Bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, rickettsiae ,prions,yeast, Nematoda and protozoa ← agents to communicable diseases Chain of infection Pathogen → reservoir→ portal of exit → Transmission → portal of entry → establishment of infection in new host 1. Pathogen disease causing agent 2. Reservoir: favorable environment for infectious agents to live and grow 3. Portal of Exit : path by which agent leaves host 4. Transmission: how pathogens are passed from reservoir to next host 5. Portal of entry : where agent enters susceptible host 6. New Host Susceptible to new infection being established Modes of Transmission Direct transmission immediate transfer of disease agent touching,biting,kissing,sexual intercourse Indirect transmission transmission involving an intermediate step Airborne, vehicleborne ( fomitetouching an object and leaving “something” there), vectorborne, biological Infectious Diseases = Communicable Diseases ( CD) ● CD’s have dropped in Developed Nations 1. Immunizations 2. Antibiotics ● New CD’s still emerge ● AIDS,MDRTB,MRSA,Bird Flu,others ● CDs still a major player ● Elderly ● Newborns ● Chronically ill : secondary infections Infamous killers ● Bubonic plague ● Tuberculosis ● Smallpox ● Cholera ● Typhoid “Mary” the chef who cooked in other people's home and they would die after they cooked for them ● Typhus ● Yellow fever ● Diphtheria ● Influenza ● Measles
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