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Medical Ethics Lecture 2

by: Elizabeth

Medical Ethics Lecture 2 Phil 164H

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About this Document

These notes cover what we went over in Lecture 2
Medical Ethics
J. Dixon
Class Notes
philosophy, philosophy 164, philosophy lecture notes, medical ethics, Lecture, Lecture Notes, consequentialism
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 164H at University of Massachusetts taught by J. Dixon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Phil 164 ­ Medical Ethics I  University of Massachusetts, Amherst  Professor Dixon  Lecture 2  Blue​ ­ theory Yellow ​ ­ vocab    Unit 1: Moral Theory Primer  I. Types of Philosophy  A. Metaphysics­ Questions about being  1. Can God is omnipotent, can he create a rock he cannot lift?  B. Epistemology­ Questions about knowing  1. How do I know I’m not dreaming?  C. Ethics­ right vs. wrong  1. Trolley problem  II. Types of Ethics  A. Metaethics   1. Are there objective ethical truths? (in this class we assume yes)  B. Normative Ethics  1. What should you do and why?   2. What is the right/wrong action?    C. Applied Ethics  1. Applying theories to specific situations  ● This class is about “B” and “C”    III. What is moral theory?  A. John Rawls    1. Two concepts of ethics ­ good and right  2. The structure of a theory depends on how it defines and relates these two  IV. Main Concepts: The good and the right  Obligatory Actions  Optional Actions  Wrong Actions  Actions one morally ought to  Actions that are not  Actions that one ought not to  do; failure to do so would be  obligatory and are not wrong.  do  morally wrong  They are all right to do and  all right not to do          Right      Wrong  A. Right and wrong refers to actions  B. Good and bad refers to people, objects, experiences, etc.  C. Intrinsic Value​ ­ something being valuable because of its feature; happiness  D. Extrinsic Value​ ­ something being valuable because of how to relates to  something with intrinsic value; money  V. Two aims of moral theory­ theories are judged by how well they accomplish these two  aims  A. Theoretical Aim​ ­ to explain what makes right actions right and wrong actions  wrong  B. Practical Aim​ ­ to offer practical guidance for arriving at justified moral verdicts in  different situations  VI. Moral Principles  A. Principles of right conduct  ​ ­ specify condition under which an action is right or  wrong  1. To do with right vs. wrong  B. Principles of right value  ​ ­ specify conditions under which something has  intrinsic value  1. To do with good vs. bad  VII. Structure of Moral Theories  A. Value­based theory  ​ ​­ define the rightness of actions based on intrinsic  goodness  1. Consequentialism, natural law theory, virtue ethics  B. Duty­based theory​ ­ define the rightness of actions independently of goodness  1. deontological, Kantian, ethics of Prima Facie Duty  VIII. Seven Moral Theories  A. Consequentialism  ​ ​(C) ­ Right action is to be  understood in terms of the intrinsic value of the  action’s consequences compared to intrinsic  value of consequences of an alternative action  a) Value based theory  b) Involves alternative action  c) Comparative theory  d) Maximizing theory  e) Impartialist theory  2. Trolley problem ­ turn according to  consequentialist  3. Euthanasia ­ kill patient according to  consequentialist  4. Principle of Utility ​ ​(U) ­ action is right if  it will produce as high a utility as  alternative action  a) Utility​ ­ overall net welfare   B. Types of Consequentialism  1. Utilitarianism  a) Hedonic Utilitarianism (Principle of value is Value Hedonism=V ​ H) ­  only states of pleasure are intrinsically good and states of pain are  intrinsically bad  b) Perfectionistic Utilitarianism (Principle of value is Perfectionist  Consequentialism=P ​ C) ­ human perfection (knowledge and  achievement) have intrinsic value  ● PC and VH are based in principles of  right value (they are value based theories)  ● U = utility  ● S = structure  ● VH = value hedonism  ● PC = Perfectionist Consequentialism  ● C= Act Consequentialism  ● RC= rule consequentialism (action is  right if its acceptance value is at least as  high as the acceptance value of any other  alternative action)               IX. Natural Law Theory​  ­ Value based theory  A. NLT ­ an action is right if it does not directly violate any of the 4 basic values  B. 4 Basic Values​ ­ human life, human procreation, human knowledge, human  sociability   C. DDE ­ is an action would bring about one evil and one good effect, it is only  permissible if it meets the following conditions  1. Intrinsic Permissibility​  morally permissible besides its effects  2. Necessity​ ­ impossible to bring about good without bringing evil  3. Nonintentionality ​ ­ the evil effect is not the goal  4. Proportionality ​ ­ the good is proportional to the evil  Value of Right Conduct  Structure  Value of Good  DDE  NLT  4 Basic Goods                               


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