Medical Ethics Lecture 2
Medical Ethics Lecture 2 Phil 164H
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 164H at University of Massachusetts taught by J. Dixon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Phil 164 Medical Ethics I University of Massachusetts, Amherst Professor Dixon Lecture 2 Blue theory Yellow vocab Unit 1: Moral Theory Primer I. Types of Philosophy A. Metaphysics Questions about being 1. Can God is omnipotent, can he create a rock he cannot lift? B. Epistemology Questions about knowing 1. How do I know I’m not dreaming? C. Ethics right vs. wrong 1. Trolley problem II. Types of Ethics A. Metaethics 1. Are there objective ethical truths? (in this class we assume yes) B. Normative Ethics 1. What should you do and why? 2. What is the right/wrong action? C. Applied Ethics 1. Applying theories to specific situations ● This class is about “B” and “C” III. What is moral theory? A. John Rawls 1. Two concepts of ethics good and right 2. The structure of a theory depends on how it defines and relates these two IV. Main Concepts: The good and the right Obligatory Actions Optional Actions Wrong Actions Actions one morally ought to Actions that are not Actions that one ought not to do; failure to do so would be obligatory and are not wrong. do morally wrong They are all right to do and all right not to do Right Wrong A. Right and wrong refers to actions B. Good and bad refers to people, objects, experiences, etc. C. Intrinsic Value something being valuable because of its feature; happiness D. Extrinsic Value something being valuable because of how to relates to something with intrinsic value; money V. Two aims of moral theory theories are judged by how well they accomplish these two aims A. Theoretical Aim to explain what makes right actions right and wrong actions wrong B. Practical Aim to offer practical guidance for arriving at justified moral verdicts in different situations VI. Moral Principles A. Principles of right conduct specify condition under which an action is right or wrong 1. To do with right vs. wrong B. Principles of right value specify conditions under which something has intrinsic value 1. To do with good vs. bad VII. Structure of Moral Theories A. Valuebased theory define the rightness of actions based on intrinsic goodness 1. Consequentialism, natural law theory, virtue ethics B. Dutybased theory define the rightness of actions independently of goodness 1. deontological, Kantian, ethics of Prima Facie Duty VIII. Seven Moral Theories A. Consequentialism (C) Right action is to be understood in terms of the intrinsic value of the action’s consequences compared to intrinsic value of consequences of an alternative action a) Value based theory b) Involves alternative action c) Comparative theory d) Maximizing theory e) Impartialist theory 2. Trolley problem turn according to consequentialist 3. Euthanasia kill patient according to consequentialist 4. Principle of Utility (U) action is right if it will produce as high a utility as alternative action a) Utility overall net welfare B. Types of Consequentialism 1. Utilitarianism a) Hedonic Utilitarianism (Principle of value is Value Hedonism=V H) only states of pleasure are intrinsically good and states of pain are intrinsically bad b) Perfectionistic Utilitarianism (Principle of value is Perfectionist Consequentialism=P C) human perfection (knowledge and achievement) have intrinsic value ● PC and VH are based in principles of right value (they are value based theories) ● U = utility ● S = structure ● VH = value hedonism ● PC = Perfectionist Consequentialism ● C= Act Consequentialism ● RC= rule consequentialism (action is right if its acceptance value is at least as high as the acceptance value of any other alternative action) IX. Natural Law Theory Value based theory A. NLT an action is right if it does not directly violate any of the 4 basic values B. 4 Basic Values human life, human procreation, human knowledge, human sociability C. DDE is an action would bring about one evil and one good effect, it is only permissible if it meets the following conditions 1. Intrinsic Permissibility morally permissible besides its effects 2. Necessity impossible to bring about good without bringing evil 3. Nonintentionality the evil effect is not the goal 4. Proportionality the good is proportional to the evil Value of Right Conduct Structure Value of Good DDE NLT 4 Basic Goods
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