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Chapter 2 Notes: Different Ways of Learning

by: Micah Haji-Sheikh

Chapter 2 Notes: Different Ways of Learning EDU 202-2001

Marketplace > College of Southern Nevada > Education > EDU 202-2001 > Chapter 2 Notes Different Ways of Learning
Micah Haji-Sheikh

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About this Document

These are the notes from our textbook covering chapter two.
Introduction to Secondary Education
Robert Shkorupa
Class Notes
Pedagogy, Teaching, Education, learning
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Micah Haji-Sheikh on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 202-2001 at College of Southern Nevada taught by Robert Shkorupa in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Secondary Education in Education at College of Southern Nevada.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chapter Two - Different Ways of Learning (Terms that will be on the quiz will be ​red​ (from chapter 1), and  ​green​ (from chapter two); as  they correlate with our ​Lecture and Discussion Terms Study Sheet​. All other important terms  will just be ​ bolded​.)    I. What does intelligence really mean?  ❏ How many kinds of intelligence are there?  ❏ EQ (Emotional Intelligence Quotient) or. IQ (Intelligence Quotient)  ❏ What are the different learning styles?  ❏ Do people learn differently based on gender?  ❏ How do we avoid  stereotypic thinking?    ● Learners with exceptionalities  ○ People who learn differently often get lots in our educational  system.  ○ Everyone deserves the appropriate educational strategies to learn  and succeed.  ○ Learning, physical, developmental, emotional, & behavioral  disabilities  ■ Students with gifts & talents are in this category, but still  separate      II. Multiple Intelligences  ❏ Who decides what intelligence is?    ● Traditional intelligence includes mental capabilities such as reasoning, problem  solving, & abstract thinking.  ○ IQ - created in the early 20th century  ■ A score of 1 ​ 00 ​ was considered normal or average  ■ Larger score, the “brighter” the individual  ■ Some people consider IQ to be fixed, like height.  ● Not the case actually, intelligence is malleable    ● Carol Dweck ​- Stanford professor, says a “F ​ ixed mindset​ views intelligence as  ability-focused, finite, and determined at birth. IQ measures intelligence and  cannot change.    ● Growth mindset ​- says intelligence can be developed throughout life with effort.  ❏ Whichever of these makes the most sense to you: tells you how you as an  individual approach teaching.    ● Howard Gardner - Harvard psychologist; worked to broaden intelligence from  language emphasized & logical-mathematical abilities. Says intelligence is:  ○ “The capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one of more cultural settings.” ■ Gardner's Multiple Intelligences:    ● Logical-Mathematical  ○ Number/reasoning smarts  ● Linguistic  ○ Word smarts  ● Bodily-Kinesthetic  ○ Body smarts  ● Musical  ○ Music smarts  ● Spatial  ○ Picture smarts  ● Interpersonal  ○ People smart  ● Intrapersonal  ○ Self smart  ● Naturalist  ○ Environment smarts  ● Infinitely more possible.    ● Intelligence may also differ based on cultural value    Ask yourself:  ❏ How do we make room for students who don’t fit the classroom “norm”?  ❏ How can I use music to emphasize key points?  ❏ How can I promote hand & body movement, and experiences to enhance  learning?  ❏ How can I incorporate sharing & interpersonal interactions into my  lessons?  ❏ How can I encourage students to think deeper about their feelings &  memories?  ❏ How can I use visual organizers/aids to promote understanding?  ❏ How can I encourage students to classify and appreciate the world  around them?      III. Assessment    ● If intelligence is different, then so must how we test it be.  ○ As opposed to letter-grades or percentages...  ★ Portfolio​ - (more of a comprehensive assessment), includes  examples or artifacts of students works  ■ Detailed descriptions to report student competence        IV. The Five Minds -   - Things we need to develop to thrive in the 21st century.   - Memorizing and cramming are not good ways of fostering learning.    1. The Ethical Mind  a. We have to work hard to teach children lessons that focus on advancing  society, rather than lessons that focus on gaining personal wealth.  2. The Respectful Mind  a. Teach children to honor people with different ideas. Different cultures, and  different belief systems. We need to learn from those who have had  different experiences than our own.  3. The Disciplined Mind  a. Without Mastering of this skill, one is destined to never become a leader,  only a follower.  4. The Synthesizing Mind  a. The ability to sort what information is valuable, and what is not  5. The Creating Mind  a. Offers new insight & a fresh way of thinking  ❏ What else should be part of the “School Mind”?      V. Emotional Intelligence    ● EQ (emotional Intelligence quotient)  ● Daniel Goleman  ○ Wrote ​Emotional Intelligence ​ - “​a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking & action​.”  ■ EQ may be a better predictor than IQ      VI. ​Learning Styles​: diverse ways of learning, comprehending, and using information.    ● Three factors contribute to a specific learning style:  ○ Physiology - what you do while you learn, and the conditions of the  environment you learn best in.  ○ Affective (attitudes) - levels of motivation determine learning style  ★ Affective Domain:​  includes attitudes, values & emotion, factors that  influence curiosity, the ability to tolerate & overcome frustration, a  preference to learn in groups or individually, and the willingness to  take risks.  ● Locus of Control:​  contributing failure to external factors, not  taking responsibility for their behavior.  ■ Students are motivated from within (intrinsically motivated)   ○ Cognitive (Information Processing)  ■ How we process information varies from person to person  ★ Cognitive Domain:​  different ways of perceiving, organizing,  retaining, and using information.  ● Visual (reading/looking)  ● Auditory (listen/hear)  ● Kinesthetic/tactile (touch/hands-on)  ● Neuroplasticity ​- developing new neural brain pathways. This helps to better  retain information.  ● Flexibility & Variety are keys to becoming a great teacher.      VII. Brain differences    ● Gender Similarities Hypothesis  ○ There are ​NO​ important intellectual or psychological differences between  genders, but there are some within genders. (I.E. race, ethnicity, and  economic status.  ● We as teachers can help our students activate their brains.  ● “Generalize a pedagogy based on a student's gender will surely miss many  students who do not fit neatly into a fixed gender mold.”      VIII. ​Exceptional Learners - ​  students with a great range of abilities from years behind, to  years ahead.  ● Learning disabilities  ● Developmental disabilities, Intellectual disabilities  ● Emotional disturbances or behavior disorders  ● Hearing impaired  ● Visually impaired  ● Speech & communication disorders  ● ADD & hyperactivity  ● The Autism spectrum  ● Traumatic brain injuries  ● Orthopedic impairments  ● Other health impairments  ● Severe and multiple disabilities    - Gifted and Talented are also considered Exceptional Learners, but in their own  category.    A. The Gifted & Talented  a. Giftedness  i. Leadership  ii. Visual and Performing Arts  iii. General Intellectual Ability  iv. Creative Thinking  v. Specific Academic Ability    ★ Giftedness​ - ​  originally based on IQ  ○ “Not about how analytical and insightful you are, but how  you use such skills.”  ■ Approximately 3 million students are identified as  academically gifted. Even more remain unidentified.  ■ Only 20 states require gifted programs  ★ Advanced Placement (AP) - ​  provides college level courses  for high-achieving high schoolers  ○ International Baccalaureate (IB) ​ - an internationally  recognized degree program that includes a rigorous  science, math, foreign language, & diverse culture studies.  ★ Accelerated Programs ​ - allows gifted students from all  grade levels to skip grades or receive early college credit.    B-1. ​Special Education ​ - programs designed to help those with a multitude  disabilities.    ★ (IDEA) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ​ - extends  coverage to all disabled learners between the ages 3 & 21,  including those with autism and traumatic brain injuries.  ○ ZERO REJECT & APPROPRIATE EDUCATION (FAPE):  ■ excluding these children is unconstitutional.  ■ Appropriate Education ​ - accurate diagnosis and responsive  programs for these children’s needs.  ○ PARENTAL PARTICIPATION:  ■ Parents and guardians are required partners in all decision  making, and legislation.  ○ NONDISCRIMINATORY EDUCATION:  ■ A fair assessment of children with disabilities so they can be  protected from inappropriate classification and tracking.  ○ LEAST-RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT:  ■ Protects children from being inappropriately segregated.  ★ Mainstreaming ​ - traditional term for placing special needs  students in a regular classroom setting for at least part of  the day.  ★ Inclusion ​ (full inclusion) - separate classes and schools are to  be avoided unless a child's disabilities are to the point where  this cannot be achieved.   ○ PROCEDURAL DUE PROCESS:  ■ The right of students with disabilities to protest a school's  decisions about their education.  ★ INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM (IEP)​:  ■ A program reviewed & revised annually, to ensure the  program is aligned with what a child needs.   ● It must include:  ○ A statement of the student's current  performance, including long term (annual)  goals, & short term objectives.  ○ A description of the nature and duration of the  instructional services designed to meet the  prescribed goals.  ○ An overview of the methods of evaluation that  will be used to monitor the child’s progress and  to determine whether the goals and objectives  have been met.  - No IEP formula. Specific to each child.      B - 2.​ Learning Disabilities​ - students who have difficulties with listening, speaking,  reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical skills.  - Uneven performance, hyperactivity, disorganization, and lack of follow through  are common problems    ● Regular Education Initiative ​ - encourages schools to provide special services  within a classroom (see inclusion/mainstreaming)      C. Assistive Technology  ● Assistive or Adaptive Technology - ​  can provide a boost for special needs  students in and beyond the classroom.  ○ Not a perfect system; spellcheck and the like can limit learning, sending  technology home can lead to inappropriate use.    All in all, inclusion is a moral issue.  


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