Principles of Developmental Psychology Week 2 Lecture 3
Principles of Developmental Psychology Week 2 Lecture 3 830
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Tkachuk on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 830 at Rutgers University taught by Linnea Dickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Week 2 Lecture 3 February 1, 2016 Wed and Thurs 1-2pm Tillet 615 (Megan-TA) 2 Kinds of Research 1. Experimental -experimenter manipulates one of variables (IV) -randomly assigning participants in each group, because the individual in group A on average are identical to group B except for the thing that you manipulated aka Independent variable -you can conclude what caused the change in the group due to manipulating IV and random assignment 2. Correlational -2 variables, measured those two values -see if they’re associated in any way -r goes from -1 to +1 -correlation coefficient can tell you the direction of the relationship between the two variables -how strong the relationship is by how far away from 0 it is Correlations -Positive: high on variable A= high on variable B -Negative: as one variable increases, the other decreases -Value of 0: there is no relationship between the variables -Correlation does NOT equal causation -3 Possible Interpretation -A causes B -B causes A (it is impossible to know which one causes which) -C causes A and B (there is a confounding variable) Ex: grades and sleep correlated? Parenting styles could be confounding variable -those who sleep more may have parents who enforce rules and are involved -those whose parents are not as involved do not support kids’ academics/sleep Confounding Variables -an extraneous variable, not one of the two measured -they influence both of the variables measured in a causal way Nightlights and Myopia -nightlight use during first 2 years of use and development of myopia -found strong positive correlation between nightlight usage and percentage of near sighted children -nightlight “caused” children to develop myopia -they asked this question because in other species, the effect of light can affect chicks’ growth of eyeballs -cannot make this conclusion, found possible confounding variables -might be a confounding variable, the children who were likely to be myopic inherited the myopic gene, parents who are nearsighted will want nightlight because they need light to see the child -EXAMPLE: carrying a lighter is correlated with developing lung cancer -NOT causing lung cancer (could be due to confounding variable=smoking cigarettes) -smoking increases likelihood of carrying lighter and developing lung cancer (C causes A and B) -EXAMPLE: have a hot tub correlated with completing college -what’s the confounding variable? Financial situation of home -EXAMPLE: Eating dinner with family is correlated with doing well in school -Confounding variable? Parental involvement Why aren’t experiments (as opposed to correlational studies) susceptible to the influence of confounding variables? Nature AND Nurture (Behavioral Genetics) How much of each? How do they work together? -several different ways to describe it (canalization, reaction ranges) -*Your Genes and Your Environment Are Correlated* -child genetically predisposed to having lots of energy is likely to spend day outside at park -creative child spends time inside surrounded by art supplies -shy or introverted child spends time in room or alone, very different experiences -What is the mechanism that we find ourselves in environments that make sense with our genetic predispositions? -Sandra Scarr found 3 ways in which the environment you find yourself developing in is caused by your genes -each happen to us -can work hand in hand not mutually exclusive 1. Gene Environment Correlation (passive) -likely to occur early on in development -a really extroverted child spends much of her day interacting with other people -set of parents, have a biological child, passed on genes to child, genes more likely to be outgoing, the parents when child is infant are also the main creators of the environment for that child, then they’re likely to have lots of kids over and inviting people over, child inherited propensity to become outgoing and finds themselves living with lots of interaction going on. -It is passive because child passively received genes and have no say over the environment that parents created for them. (correlation between genes and environment b/c parents are confounding variable) 2. Evocative Gene Environment Correlation -child has outgoing genes likely to make him be that way, is behaving in ways that are consistent with his genes, teacher is more likely to call on him, remember who he is for play date -baby who smiles a lot more likely to be picked up -evoking responses in other people by the way the child acts -whereas introverted child more likely to cry causes child to not be held as much and not raising hand even though she does know the answer causing there to be less interaction with teacher -not ACTIVELY choosing environment but evoking responses in other people 3. Active Gene Environment Correlation (Niche-picking) -child actively chooses environments that feel right -outgoing child tries out for the play this year -musically gifted child always has music on and tries out for band -shy band does not try out for debate team -as you get older, you have more opportunities to pick what you like -Passive rGE are influenced most strongly early on -Evocative rGE come on pretty early on, get stronger as child gets older and has more behaviors -Active rGE likely not to show up til middle school/high school
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