Biospych notes PSY 3
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Learning vs Memory Learning Deals with how experience changes the brain o Where do these changes take place? o What kind of changes? Memory Deals with how these changes are stored (and later re activated) with the brain o Are there different types of memories? What distinguishes them? ▯ ▯ Learning is the process of Acquiring NEW INFORMATION, THE OUTCOME IS MEMORY . ▯ ▯ Unimodal models of memory Early psychology Memory is a single system along a continuum ▯ Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve Tested himself as a self study Made up a list of nonsense words (new words that he can pronounce) and practiced trying to pronounce them, then measured how many he could recite after different periods of time Performance goes does with respect to time. Smooth decline Suggested that memory was one thing ▯ Modal models of memory Memory can be broken up into sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory Multiple, discrete systems ▯ Case study with HM HM was an epileptic who had his temporal lobes removed in 1953 His seizures were dramatically reduced but so was his long term memory HM experienced both mild retrograde amnesia and severe anterograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia- acts backwards. Unable to remember the past Anterograde (forward acting) unable to form new memories While HM was unable to form most types of new long term memories, his short term memory was intact o His remote memory (distance past events) was normal HM’s short term memory Digit span test= HM could repeat digits, provided that the time between learning and recall was within the duration of STM Block tapping memory span- This rest demonstrated that HM’s amnesia was global, not limited to one sensory modality o Like the game Simon o ▯ HM and implicit learning HM improved with practice on procedural tasks, all without recalling previous practice sessions. Things such as mirror drawing, rotary pursuit etc, he would get better at the task even though to him every single time he did it felt like the first time, which shows implicit learning because he unconsciously picked up on the task HM readily learned responses through classical conditioning, but had non memory of the conditioning trials ▯ Classical conditioning Implicit type of learning If you have a stimulus that produced a reaction, if you bring up an CS + US, then after a period of time the US will produce a CR. ▯ ▯ Explicit memories Declarative ▯ Implicit memories Non declarative ▯ Summary The medial temporal lobes are involved in memory STM and LTM are distinctly separate o HM was unable to move memories from STM to LTM, a problem with memory consolidation Memory may exist but not be recalled= as when HM exhibited a skill he did not know he had learned (explicit vs implicit memories) ▯ Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia Not all patients with this form of amnesia are unable to form new explicit long term memories o Semantic memory (general information, facts) may function while episodic memory (events that one has experienced) may not Medial temporal lobe amnesiacs may also have trouble imagining future events ▯ Mechanisms of Consolidation and Retrieval MTL structures, specifically the hippocampus, are involved in consolidation o Morris Water Maze Rats learned where the platform was Then administered a drug to disable hippocampus temporarily (7 days) Rats forgot where the platform was Also involved in retrieval o Morris water Maze Rats learned where the platform was After 7 days rats were given drug to inhibit hippocampus just before testing Rats forgot where the platform was ▯ Once a memory is old enough, memories are retrieved from somewhere else because HM did not have a hippocampus yet he could retrieve information about his life up to the last few weeks before surgery ▯ ▯ Where are memories stored? The hippocampus is not the permanent storage site for memories Each memory is stored diffusely throughout the brain structures that were involved in its formation o Perceiving and remembering the same stimulus activates similar sets of cortical regions CURRENT VIEW Hippocampus stores information temporarily, then over time the memory is consolidated elsewhere, usually in the cortex o The hippocampus guised this consolidation process but eventually the memories are stored and accessed independently from it Smithe and Squire (2009) looked at brain activation for memories over a 12 year span Most recent memories greater HC activity Oldest memories less HC activity, more cortical activity ▯ Where are memories stored? Some structures do have particular roles in storage of memories o Hippocampus: spatial location Place cells: particular neurons respond when the organisms is in a particular location o Perihinal cortex: Object recognition o Perirhinal and Entrohinal (close to hippocampus) cortex: concepts Concept cells o Interotemporal (bottom of temporal lobes) cortex Visual memories of objects Present objects inferotemporal cortexperirhinal cortex Recall objects PRCITC Amygdala o Emotional learning o Doesn’t store memories but affects storage o The amygdala: modulating memory of emotional events Prefrontal cortex o Temporal order of events and working memory o Lesions produce deficits in tasks involving a series of responses. Do it out of order Cerebellum and Striatum o Cerebellum Conditioned responses, such as ones that HM can recall o Striatum(part of basal ganglia) Procedural learning Mirror tracking, tower of Hanoi Some forms of implicit memory ▯ Summary Memory functions can be divided into short and long term memories Short tem o Prefrontal cortex and sensory systems o Holds info for a short period of tine, into may be consolidated into LTM Long term o Consolidation depends on MTL structures, particularly the hippocampus o Role of MTL decreases over time o Memories ultimately are stored in cortical regions, corresponding to where they initially caused activation Implicit learning/ memory can occur without explicit memory o Different memory systems for declarative and non declarative info o Based on different brain structures (cerebellum, striatum) ▯ ▯ Synaptic mechanism of learning and memory Molecular events that appear to underlie learning and memory o The Hebb rule If a presynaptic neuron is active while the postsynaptic neuron is firing, then the synapse between them will be strengthened. o Long term potential LTP An increase in synaptic strengths resulting from the simultaneous activation of pre and post synaptic neurons LTP is consistent with that synaptic changes hypothesized by Hebb o Easily included by strongly stimulating a presynaptic neuron Strong enough to make the post synaptic neuron fire o LTP can last for many weeks o LTP only occurs if presynaptic firing is followed by postsynaptic firing Hebb’s postulate for learning o Co-occurrence of firing in pre and post synaptic neurons necessary for learning and memory ▯ Evidence for LTO as a neural mechanism of learning and memory LTP can be experimentally induced by electrical stimulation that mimics normal neural activity LTP effects are greatest in brain areas involved in learning and memory Learning can produce LTP like changes Drugs that impact learning often have parallel effects on LTP Mutant animals that show little LTP have trouble learning ▯
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