biology 1082; week 2 notes
biology 1082; week 2 notes BIOL 1082
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Conner on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1082 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Ruthanns Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Biology for Educators in Biological Sciences at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Biology week 2 notes Atomic # this is determined by the number of protons in the nucleus, the atomic number of an element also determines the placement and organization of it with in the periodic table of elements. Atomic mass it is equivalent to the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Valence electronsare any electrons on the outer electron shell associated with an atom, these are typically used in the bonding of two or more atoms. Covalent bonding occurs when atoms share electrons to bond. Ionic bonding occurs when an atoms gives away or completely transfers an electron to another atom for bonding. Hydrogen bonding when the positive hydrogen atoms in one molecule are attracted to the negative oxygen atoms, because of this water molecules cannot be broken apart without an electric shock. Polarity of water molecules the difference in electronegativities between oxygen and hydrogen atoms creates partial negative and positive charges, resulting in waters attraction to other water molecules. Properties of water: Solvent due to its polarity water can dissolve many substances. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding water molecules cling together. Adhesion the ability for water molecules to cling to other polar surfaces. (This is how water works within plants) Surface tension this is due to the molecules at the surface are more strongly attracted to each other than the air above. High heat capacity the hydrogen bonds that link water molecules together allow for it to absorb heat without changing its temperature. pH scale the pH in a substance is the measure of concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. This measure in water is usually 7 which is neutral on the scale. Everything that has a pH of 06 is an acid and everything that has a pH of 814 is a base. *Molecules create cells in the right conditions and circumstances* Cell Categories: Prokaryotic these are single celled organism which lack membrane bound nucleus, mitochondria or any other membrane bound organelle. These include Bacteria and Archaea these are the ancient single celled organisms that lived on this earth long before us. Eukaryotic also known as the “true cell”, it contains a nucleus and other organelles bound be a membrane. However all cells have several things in common: A plasma membrane which forms a boundary around the outside of the cell DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) where genetic information is stored Cytoplasm which includes everything inside the plasma membrane excluding the nucleus (or the nucleoid in prokaryotic cells) Ribosomes which function in protein synthesis Eukaryotic cell components and their functions Cell wall maintains shape (only in bacteria and plants) Plasma membrane controls materials in and out Nucleus with DNA genetic information for activities, growth, reproduction, etc. Nucleolus region where ribosomal subunits are made Ribosome make proteins Endoplasmic reticulum houses ribosomes Golgi body packages proteins Centrioles organizes mitotic spindle during cell division Lysosome vesicle with enzymes for digesting macromolecule Mitochondrion “powerhouse of the cell”, production of ATP Vacuole storage (sac) holds water in plants Chloroplast plants only, where photosynthesis take place Cytoplasm content between nucleus and plasma membrane
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