The Space Race (Part 1) - ASTR 1345-004 - Lectures 1&2
The Space Race (Part 1) - ASTR 1345-004 - Lectures 1&2 ASTR 1345-004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sera (Notetaker) on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1345-004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by James J Davis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 The Space Race (Part 1) th Astronomy in the 20 Century Unit 1, Lectures 1 & 2 Recent Missions Kepler NASA’s planet hunting satellite o Discovered 2300+ confirmed exoplanets o Scans a portion of Cygnus o Does not take very good pictures (unlike Hubble) Cassini Been orbiting Saturn since 2004 o Saturn has the only moon with an atmosphere, Titan o Saturn’s rings are 10 miles thick and made from reflective material such as ice and rocks Mission extended until December 2007 Dawn Orbits the two largest asteroids in the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres o Ceres makes up 33% of the mass in the asteroid belt Mars Science Lab Otherwise known as the “Curiosity” rover Arrive to Mars in August 2012 and has since travelled ~8.6 miles in 1500 days New Horizons Did a Pluto/Charon flyby Ended in July 2015 o Now just drifts out of the solar system Discovered that Pluto might have a very thin ocean under the surface Juno In Greek mythology, Juno is the wife of Jupiter, always watching over him Studies Jupiter and its formation Arrived in July 2016 Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 Discoveries & Mysteries Proxima B Nearest exoplanet Located around the Proxima Centauri star KIC 8462852 Star with crazy fluctuations in its light curve Manned Spaceflight Over 55 years of missions from various countries around the world o Consisting of capsules, shuttles, and landers International cooperation (sometimes) Intense competition Causes of the Space Race Assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand started World War I (1914-1918) o First modern war o Lots of trench warfare “No Man’s Land” between trenches was rained on with the newly invented machine guns – death trap for anyone not in a trench o Hand to hand combat in trenches, if someone made it to the other side o Tanks Super slow, easy to destroy o Long range artillery Massive artillery guns which could hit targets miles away o Poison gas Phosgene and Mustard Gas Gas was released and allowed to be carried wherever by the wind Led to the invention of the gas mask o Aerial and Undersea Combat Airplanes, blimps and submarines Collapse of Imperial Russia o 1917 overthrown of the Russian monarchy by the Bolsheviks o Causes Russia to withdrawn from the war Russia had to sign a treaty with Germany to exit the war which allowed Germany to take billions of dollars and valuable land from Russia Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 o Red Terror The Bolsheviks seized and controlled all aspects of life Secret police, spies, work camps Defeat of Germany o Germany mobilized most of its forces in The Spring Offensive which failed in 1918 and left Germany with little strength left o Germany surrendered Treaty of Versailles o Massive punishment for Germany Took land and imposed huge fines Post-War Wars Russian Civil War Greco-Turkish War Irish War of Independence German Freikorps in Eastern Europe Tech Boom: Modern Rocketry Robert Goddard o Invented first liquid rocket fuel in 1926 o Moved his research facility from New England to Roswell, New Mexico (home of the aliens) o Successfully designed and launched rockets (his research was super secretive) o Lots of interest from the military in his work How Rockets Work rd o Newton’s 3 law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction Combusted rocket fuel explodes downward, rocket goes up o Never want to combust the fuel supply all at once, do it gradually to avoid massive explosions Meanwhile… In Germany Hitler comes to power o He builds a massive military, violating the Treaty of Versailles but no one does anything because no one wants to start a war In 1939, Germany captures Poland, Belgium, and France (Paris) with their massive military World War II starts Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 Super Weapons Werner von Braun o Head of Germany’s rocket program o Used Goddard’s designs o Interested in space travel and only wanted his work to be used for such o Captured by the US towards the end of the war and went to work for them o First director of NASA and advisor to JFK (also friends with Walt Disney) Successful military use of rockets by Germany (which were built in Polish slave camps) o V1 and V2 rocket attacks in June 1944 and March 1945 Atomic and nuclear weaponry used by the US on Japan WWII Ends, Cold War Begins 1957 declared International Geophysical Year o Precise longitudinal and latitudinal mapping of the Earth o Study of the upper-atmosphere with weather balloons o Study of magnetics and plate tectonics Where Is “Outer Space”? ~120 km above Earth (70 miles up) It’s the boundary between the atmosphere and fast flowing solar wind At this point, standard flight isn’t possible, the only way to stay up here is to be orbiting the Earth Russia: Early Space Race Victor On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite (much to the surprise of the entire world) rd On November 3 they launched Sputnik II o Also known as “Muttnik” because of the dog, Laika, which was onboard the craft In 1959, the Soviets launched Luna 2 into the moon Luna 3 orbited the moon in October 1959 The Russians were extremely careless and unsafe in their building, testing, and launching of rockets as displayed by General Nedelin and the Nedelin disaster o A rocket filled with “Devil’s Venom,” an extremely explosive compound of nitric acid and hydrazine, was accidentally mixed prematurely and exploded inside of a rocket, killing ~120 people
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