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The Space Race (Part 1) - ASTR 1345-004 - Lectures 1&2

by: Sera (Notetaker)

The Space Race (Part 1) - ASTR 1345-004 - Lectures 1&2 ASTR 1345-004

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > ASTR 1345-004 > The Space Race Part 1 ASTR 1345 004 Lectures 1 2
Sera (Notetaker)
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About this Document

This is the first part of the notes of The Space Race (which spanned 4 lectures) up to Russia's first successes (and failures) with space and space technology (Sputnik and such). Part 2 will follow...
Intro to Astronomy 1
James J Davis
Class Notes
astronomy, spacerace, space, race, rockets, history, spacehistory, David, astr1345, notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sera (Notetaker) on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1345-004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by James J Davis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 The Space Race (Part 1) th Astronomy in the 20 Century Unit 1, Lectures 1 & 2 Recent Missions Kepler  NASA’s planet hunting satellite o Discovered 2300+ confirmed exoplanets o Scans a portion of Cygnus o Does not take very good pictures (unlike Hubble) Cassini  Been orbiting Saturn since 2004 o Saturn has the only moon with an atmosphere, Titan o Saturn’s rings are 10 miles thick and made from reflective material such as ice and rocks  Mission extended until December 2007 Dawn  Orbits the two largest asteroids in the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres o Ceres makes up 33% of the mass in the asteroid belt Mars Science Lab  Otherwise known as the “Curiosity” rover  Arrive to Mars in August 2012 and has since travelled ~8.6 miles in 1500 days New Horizons  Did a Pluto/Charon flyby  Ended in July 2015 o Now just drifts out of the solar system  Discovered that Pluto might have a very thin ocean under the surface Juno  In Greek mythology, Juno is the wife of Jupiter, always watching over him  Studies Jupiter and its formation  Arrived in July 2016 Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 Discoveries & Mysteries Proxima B  Nearest exoplanet  Located around the Proxima Centauri star KIC 8462852  Star with crazy fluctuations in its light curve Manned Spaceflight  Over 55 years of missions from various countries around the world o Consisting of capsules, shuttles, and landers  International cooperation (sometimes)  Intense competition Causes of the Space Race  Assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand started World War I (1914-1918) o First modern war o Lots of trench warfare  “No Man’s Land” between trenches was rained on with the newly invented machine guns – death trap for anyone not in a trench o Hand to hand combat in trenches, if someone made it to the other side o Tanks  Super slow, easy to destroy o Long range artillery  Massive artillery guns which could hit targets miles away o Poison gas  Phosgene and Mustard Gas  Gas was released and allowed to be carried wherever by the wind  Led to the invention of the gas mask o Aerial and Undersea Combat  Airplanes, blimps and submarines  Collapse of Imperial Russia o 1917 overthrown of the Russian monarchy by the Bolsheviks o Causes Russia to withdrawn from the war  Russia had to sign a treaty with Germany to exit the war which allowed Germany to take billions of dollars and valuable land from Russia Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 o Red Terror  The Bolsheviks seized and controlled all aspects of life  Secret police, spies, work camps  Defeat of Germany o Germany mobilized most of its forces in The Spring Offensive which failed in 1918 and left Germany with little strength left o Germany surrendered  Treaty of Versailles o Massive punishment for Germany  Took land and imposed huge fines Post-War Wars  Russian Civil War  Greco-Turkish War  Irish War of Independence  German Freikorps in Eastern Europe Tech Boom: Modern Rocketry  Robert Goddard o Invented first liquid rocket fuel in 1926 o Moved his research facility from New England to Roswell, New Mexico (home of the aliens) o Successfully designed and launched rockets (his research was super secretive) o Lots of interest from the military in his work  How Rockets Work rd o Newton’s 3 law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction  Combusted rocket fuel explodes downward, rocket goes up o Never want to combust the fuel supply all at once, do it gradually to avoid massive explosions Meanwhile… In Germany  Hitler comes to power o He builds a massive military, violating the Treaty of Versailles but no one does anything because no one wants to start a war  In 1939, Germany captures Poland, Belgium, and France (Paris) with their massive military  World War II starts Note taker: Sera ASTR 1345-004 Super Weapons  Werner von Braun o Head of Germany’s rocket program o Used Goddard’s designs o Interested in space travel and only wanted his work to be used for such o Captured by the US towards the end of the war and went to work for them o First director of NASA and advisor to JFK (also friends with Walt Disney)  Successful military use of rockets by Germany (which were built in Polish slave camps) o V1 and V2 rocket attacks in June 1944 and March 1945  Atomic and nuclear weaponry used by the US on Japan WWII Ends, Cold War Begins  1957 declared International Geophysical Year o Precise longitudinal and latitudinal mapping of the Earth o Study of the upper-atmosphere with weather balloons o Study of magnetics and plate tectonics Where Is “Outer Space”?  ~120 km above Earth (70 miles up)  It’s the boundary between the atmosphere and fast flowing solar wind  At this point, standard flight isn’t possible, the only way to stay up here is to be orbiting the Earth Russia: Early Space Race Victor  On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite (much to the surprise of the entire world) rd  On November 3 they launched Sputnik II o Also known as “Muttnik” because of the dog, Laika, which was onboard the craft  In 1959, the Soviets launched Luna 2 into the moon  Luna 3 orbited the moon in October 1959  The Russians were extremely careless and unsafe in their building, testing, and launching of rockets as displayed by General Nedelin and the Nedelin disaster o A rocket filled with “Devil’s Venom,” an extremely explosive compound of nitric acid and hydrazine, was accidentally mixed prematurely and exploded inside of a rocket, killing ~120 people


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