Chemistry 101 Part 2 for BIOL 1441
Chemistry 101 Part 2 for BIOL 1441 BIOL 1441
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madalyn on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1441 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Shawn Christense in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chemistry 101 for BIOL 1441 Saturday, September 10, 2016 8:15 PM Continuing Chemistry for BIOL 1441 Electron Configuration Pink - s block Orange - p block 1 Green - d block 2 3 Phosphorus Re-Cap: 1st shell holds 2 electrons In order to do electron configuration (elec. Config.), It is good to start off knowing the number of valence electrons 2nd shell holds 6 electrons And the total number of electrons. 3rd shell holds 10 electrons 4th shell holds 14 electrons Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons and 15 electrons. So the elec. Config. Is: Therefore; the s-block holds 2 electrons. These 2 electrons 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3 Are found in the valence shell. (outer-mostshell) The p-block holds 6 valence electrons. *D-block is tricky since they are transition metals. I will not Notice how the superscript numbers (small, upper numbers) Total up to be 15; the number of electrons. Now, the total Describe those in these notes. Number of superscript numbers in row 3, total up to be 5; The number of valence electrons. This is how you check your Work. How it works Let's break it down for phosphorus: The first row, 1, can hold up to 2 electrons. Then you go to the next row, 2. Since row 2 is a part of the s-block, you would only put the maximum numbers it will hold, in this case, 2. Wait, you are still in row 2, that means you go to the next block, p. The p-block can hold up to 6 electrons. So, you would put 6 in this case. Now for the next row, same concept, but in the 3rd row. So, it would be 3s in this case. Now on to the p-block. You would only go up to 3 since phosphorus is the third element in that row. Let's try another Fluorine, very reactive dude Chem. 101.2 Page 1 Pink - s block Orange - p block Green - d block 1 2 Fluorine has 7 valence electrons (because it is in group 17) And 9 electrons. **there are more blocks, like f and g, but Fluorine is on the second row in the p-block. I do not think we will coverthose in BIOL 1441 2 So, we go through the first row; 1s Next, the second row in the s-block; 2s2 Now for the p-block and it is the 5th element in the row; 2p5 2 2 5 1s 2s 2p <- this is the elec. Config. For fluorine. The superscript numbers Add up to 9. The second row superscript numbers add up to 7, the total number Of valence electrons. Filling up orbitals Let's take fluorine again as an example. In order to fill orbitals, you must know the elec. Config. 1. It makes it easier 2. You'd know the total number of electrons (surprise, that’s what elec. config. Is for) Remember in class we did those arrows and parenthesis? Yup. This is it. Alrighty, now, we know fluorine has 9 electrons. Therefore, we need 9 arrows. WAIT! Don’t just put them in there randomly. There are rules. Fill up each block, s-block, p-block, etc., with the arrows first. THEY MUST BE PAIRED IN ORDER TO CONTINUE TO THE NEXT BLOCK. Meaning, once you have filled the s-block, you put one in each parenthesis in order to each The correct number of electrons. Which, is 9 in this case. Confused? Me too. For example for fluorine… So sorry for my bad penmanship… First, fill the s-block. That's 4 electrons (arrows). So, now we have 5 more to go. (9-4=5) 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz Alrighty, now, we fill the p-block. Remember,we put 1 arrow in each parenthesis before adding more. ALWAYS put in the upwards facing arrow first. **NOTE: The reason why x, y, and z are there is because of orbit path. How I see it as, the p-block holds up to 6 electrons. So, 6 ÷ 2 = 3; there are 3 parenthesis. This may not be entirely true for some elements 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz Chem. 101.2 Page 2 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz Now we have a total of 2 electrons (arrows) left. Lastly, you put them the same way you fill the beginning parenthesis. 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz Notice how the last parenthesis contains 1 arrow. That 1 arrow, electron, is an unpaired electron. What orbit filling shows you is the unpaired electron(s) for each element. Neat, huh? Also, the direction of the arrows show the spin of each electron. ALWAYS put upwards arrows first. Types of Atoms and Bonds Cation are positively charged atoms. Think cat. Cats make people happy. Happy means positive. Anions are negatively charged atoms. Thank An-. An usually means bad; or opposite. You have two types of major bonds. Covalent and Ionic Ionic- transfer of electrons - Ionic compounds are often called salts - They are formed by non-metals and metals ○ NaCl = SODIUM CHLORIDE (salty, bro?) Covalent- shared electrons. - They are formed by two non-metals - They share electrons (Co- like, co-exist, you share everything) ○ HCl = HYDRO CHLORIC ACID (found in your stomach) Moles 1 mole = 6.02 x 10^23 That means, 1 mole of ANYTHING Very important number Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen Make up 96% of living matter. 1 mole of CH4 (methane) is the same as 1 Avogadro's number 6.02 x 10^23 mole of C12H22O11(sucrose) Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, HOWEVER, they do not have the same Sodium, Chlorine, and Magnesium make up 3.7% of living matter. molar weight. To find molar weight, add up all the atomic masses in the compound. Chem. 101.2 Page 3