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PSY 2301, Week 1 Notes

by: Natalie

PSY 2301, Week 1 Notes Psy 2301

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About this Document

Intro to Child Psych & Ch. 1
Child Psychology
Jessica Hoffman
Class Notes
child psychology




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 2301 at Texas Tech University taught by Jessica Hoffman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
PSY 2301 – Child Psychology 08/31/2016 ▯ Chapter 1 – History, Theories, & Methods ▯ Human Development as a Science  Understanding how and why people change over time o Objective & subjective o Qualitative and quantitative   Multidisciplinary o Taking data from several different fields and putting it together  Basic vs Applied Research o Basic – fundamentals o Applied – how can we use this info in the real world ▯ Why Study Child Development?  Gain insight into o Human nature o Origins of adult behavior o Sex differences, gender roles, and culture o Origins, prevention, and treatment of developmental problems o Optimize conditions of development ▯ Periods of Development  Prenatal  Infancy (0­2 years) o Before a child enters the cognitive speaking stage  Early childhood (2­5 years)  Middle childhood (6­12 years)  Adolescence (13­18 years) ▯ Domains of Development  Biosocial o Growth, motor skills, health  Cognitive o Learning, memory, language  Psychosocial o Emotion, personality, social skills  Biopsychosocial (*not a domain) o Term that emphasizes the interaction between domains of  development ▯ What is a Developmental Theory?  A formulation of relationships underlying observed events  Involves assumptions and logically derived explanations and predictions  Theories ARE NOT facts ▯ Functions of Theories  Explain and predict behavior  Offer practical guidance  Allow us to study norms ▯ Psychological Theories  Psychoanalytic Theory o Early childhood experiences and how they manifest in the adult life  Behaviorism  Social Cognitive Theory  Cognitive Theory  Biological Perspective  Ecological­Systems Approach  Sociocultural Theory ▯ Psychoanalytic Theory  Focuses on unconscious drives and impulses which shape our thinking and  behavior  External limits are internalized and lead to inner conflict  Difficult to empirically study the unconscious  Sigmund Freud (1856­1939) o Believed early childhood experiences were crucial to development o Id, Ego, and Superego o Psychosexual Stages of development  Oral (0­1 year)  Breastfeeding  Anal (1­3 years)  Potty training  Phallic (3­6 years)  Preferring opposite sex or same sex friends/parents  Latency (6­11 years)  Genital (puberty through adulthood  Criticisms of Freud o Based on patients with emotional problems o Mostly women o Retrospective reports o Too much emphasis on the unconscious  Erik Erikson (1903­1994) o Emphasizes social relationships and conscious choice o Psychosocial Stages of Development  Trust vs Mistrust  Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt  Initiative vs Guild  Industry vs Inferiority  Identity vs Role Confusion  Intimacy vs Isolation  Generativity vs Stagnation  Integrity vs Despair ▯ Behaviorism  Focus on what we can directly observe; behavior  John B. Watson (1878­1958) was a major contributor to behaviorist  movement  Also influenced by work from Ivan Pavlov (1849­1936) and B. F. Skinner  (1904­1990)  Describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned  Classical conditioning o One stimulus brings forth the response usually elicited by a second  stimulus through the repeated pairing with the second stimulus  Operant Conditioning o A particular behavior is followed by either a pleasant or unpleasant  consequence which leads to an increase or decrease in the frequency  of that behavior   Reward/Reinforcement – increases behavior  Punishment – decreases behavior  Reinforcement o Positive  Increases target behavior when applied o Negative  Increases target behavior when removed  Punishment o Positive  Decreases target behavior when applied o Negative  Decreases target behavior when removed  Problems with punishment o Does not suggest acceptable behavior o Only decreases behavior when its delivery is guaranteed o May lead to withdrawal o Can create anger and hostility o May generalize too far o May be imitated as a way of solving problems or coping  Shaping o Bits of encouragement step by step to shape good behavior ▯ Social Cognitive Thoery  Emphasizes the role of observational learning in determing behavior  Modeling  Cognition plays key role  Children are active participants  Focuses on how thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors  Cognitive development largely depends on brain development  Jean Piaget (1896­1980) o Cognitive equilibrium­disequilibrium o Scheme  Mental structure that is involved in acquiring and organizing  knowledge o Assimilation  Including new information into existing scheme o Accommodation  Adjusting old schemes or creating new schemes to include new  information o Stages of Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor (0­2 years)  Preoperational (2­7 years)  Concrete Operational (7­12 years)  Formal Operational (12­adulthood) o Information Processing Theory  Human thinking is analogous to a computer  Information is encoded (input), stored (long­term), retrieved  (short­term), and manipulated (processed) to solve problems  (output) ▯ ▯


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