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PSY 2301, Week 2 Notes

by: Natalie

PSY 2301, Week 2 Notes Psy 2301

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Finish Ch.1 Start Ch. 2
Child Psychology
Jessica Hoffman
Class Notes
child psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 2301 at Texas Tech University taught by Jessica Hoffman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
PSY 2301 – Child Psychology 09/07/2016 ▯ Ch. 1 ▯ Scientific Research  Correlation o A number between -1.0 and +1.o that indicates a degree of relationship between two variables o Positive, negative, and no correlation o Correlation vs causation  Experimental group o Gets treatment o Change in dependent variable  Control group o No treatment o No change in dependent variable  Random selection o To avoid bias in selecting groups ▯ Scientific Research  Cross sectional o Data collected at one time point o Cheaper and easier to keep up with  Longitudinal o Same individuals assessed over time o Collected at several different time points to see how things change over time o Can look at direction of a relationship o Doesn’t support causable variables o More expensive and hard to keep track of  Cross-sequential o Multiple groups of people followed over time o Can answer more questions over time o Can see how external events can affect groups o Very complicated and expensive  Ethical considerations o Institutional review board  Every study has to get processed by them to make sure studies are ethical with maximum benefit and minimal risk to participants  Nuremberg code  Consent v assent  Children can’t provide consent to any legal study  Parents have to provide consent  Child can provide assent ▯ Ch. 2 – Heredity and Environment ▯ Heredity & Environment  Heredity o The transmission of traits and characteristics from parent to child by means of genes  Genetics o The branch of biology that studies heredity and how those genes are transmitted ▯ The Genetic Code  Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) o Chemical instructions for cells to make various proteins o Thymine, adenine, guanine, cytosine  Chromosome o Rod shaped structures composed of genes and found within nuclei of cells o 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)  Gene o Small section of a chromosome; basic unit for transmission of heredity o Humans have 20,000 to 25,000 genes o Polygenic – traits resulting from many genes  Ex. Height, not just one gene contributes to height  Genome o Ull set of genes o 99.9% indentical for every two individuals ▯ ▯ PSY 2301 – Child Psychology 09/09/2016 ▯ The Genetic Code  Mitosis o Cell division process by which growth occurs and tissues are replaced o Mutation – a sudden variation of a heritable characteristics  Meiosis o Cell division process in which each pair of chromosomes splits and one member of each pair moves to the new cells o Sperm and ova ▯ Heredity & Environment  Gamete o Reproductive cell (sperm or ovum) o Each gamete contains 23 chromosomes  Zygote o The single cell formed from two gametes  Autosome (22 pairs) o A member of a pair of chromosomes  Sex Chromosomes (23 paird) o XX = female o XY = male  Men are more likely to have x mutation because they lack extra x (like females) to be dominant  i.e., males are more common to being color blind than females because it is an x mutation  Monozygotic Twins o Aka identical  Dizygotic Twins o Aka fraternal  Increased rates of twins due to: o Maternal age  Due to some body functions not functioning normal and body can release extra egg on accident o Assisted reproductive technology  Allele o Member of a pair of genes o A variation of a gene  Homozygous o Gene pair is identical in the code  Heterozygous o Gene pair that differs in the code  Dominant-Recessive Heredity o Phenotype will reflect dominant gene over the recessive gene o Carrier ▯ Chromosomal Disorders  Down syndrome o Trisomy 21 o Three copies of chromosome 21 o 1 per 700-800 individuals o facial features, cardiovascular problem, intellectual disability  Klinefelter Syndrome o XXY; 1 per 500-900 males o Produce less testosterone causing underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics  Turner Syndrome o X; 1 per 2500 females o Produce less estrogen causing underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics  Also XXX and XYY syndromes ▯ Genetic Disorders  Phenylketonuria (PKU) o Recessive gene disorder o 1 per 8000 individuals o cannot metabolize phenylalanine o testing legally required in US  Huntington Disease o 1 per 18,000 individuals o dominant gene disorder o onset in middle adulthood  Sickle-Cell Anemia o Recessive genetic disorder o Red blood cells take sickle shape, decreasing oxygen supply  Tay-Sachs Disease o Recessive genetic disorder o Fatal condition  Cystic Fibrosis o Recessive genetic disorder o Thick mucus in lungs and pancreas  Fragile X Syndrome o Recessive gene disorder o X-linked condition o Intellectual disability ▯ Prenatal Testing  Genetic testing and counseling o Consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including harmful conditions that may be passed down to children  Methods of prenatal testing o Amniocentesis o Chorionic villus sampling o Ultrasound o Blood tests ▯ Nature vs Nurture  Genotype o Set of traits inherited from parents o Genetic makeup  Phenotype o Observable characteristics o Shaped by genes and environment  Gene-Environment correlations o Passive correlation – correlation between genes and environments in which parents place their children o Evocative correlation – genes are associated with behaviors that evoke certain responses from others o Active correlation – correlation between genes and the environments children choose  Niche-picking – choosing environments that allow us to develop our inherited preferences ▯ Genotype – Phenotype  Examples of gene-environment interactions o Alcoholism o MAOA  Monoamine oxidase A o ▯ ▯


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