Govt 132: Chapter 1
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ghost21 on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GOVT 132 at George Mason University taught by Eric Shiraev in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Govt 132—Introduction to International Policy Dr. Eric Shiraev International Relations Chapter 1—Part 1 [Introduction to International Policy] -boarders and nationalities are not natural; man-made -Must carry passport to move through international boarders; also includes nationality on passport Side Notes: Basic rights, freedom, marital status, Employment, prosperity, religion, and dignity often determined by boarders. [United Nations Security Council] -created in 1945 by victors of WW2 Permeant members => Five: USA Russia France United Kingdom China [U.S. Federal Aid] -1% ($50 billion), spent on foreign aid (USA gives most amount out of any other country) -Japanese Constitution drafted by U.S. (1946—by American officers and legal scholars after WW2) Side Notes: Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev: “Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will bury you.” -referred to western leaders -challenging nuclear supremacy of USA -expressing belief of communism as an economic and political system that would prevail over American-style capitalism (often misinterpreted as a threat) [Field of International Relations] -field of science where scholars discuss their ideas, arguments, and theories -seeks to understand realities of modern world and to suggest solutions to world’s problems (field of international relations on page 6—figure 1-1) [Violence and War] Causes -instability acts as a source of new conflicts and wars -military dictatorships likely to act violently against neighboring states and own people -failing governments unable to exercise basic functions prone to use radical and violent measures to defend themselves -unsettled ethnic conflicts -small radical groups not directly affiliated with any country; wanting to achieve their political goals by violence or threats against authorities or civilian population Weapons of Mass Destruction -nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that indiscriminately kill tens of millions of people -Soviet Union tested its first Atomic Bomb in 1949 -US dropped two atomic bombs on Japanese cities Nagasaki and Hiroshima -fear of unstable government making frantic decisions resulting in death of millions [Careers in International Relations] Five career tracks: -management -consular -economic -political -public diplomacy ~ diplomatic jobs in US government (Civil Service) ~ Starting up - “Think Tanks” (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars) -Internships -Study Abroad Salary -Bachelor’s degree--$35-$45,000+ -Master’s degree or Law degree--$35-$140,000+ -advanced or profession degrees + 6-day-per-week work schedule--$160,000+ Side Notes: 1648, Peace of Westphalia—series of peace treaties Handful of Christian kingdoms and principalities in Europe agree that only they (and not the Roman Catholic Church) should determine religious identity of their subjects “Stanford U Professor, Former Director of Planning, US State Department (2005-7) Sovereign state is not dead: st -21 century will be century of sovereign states -state boarders will mean more than ever before. Countries will reinforce them -ethnic groups (like Kurds) and extremist groups (like ISIS) will seek sovereignty -nationalist’s parties will be on the rise and winning elections -to protect their sovereignty, state will increasingly turn to authoritarianism. Freedoms will be increasingly reduced” (Dr. Eric Shiraev) [Recommended Books] -Paris 1919 (Margaret Macmillan) -The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (Paul Kennedy) -Why Nations Fail (Daron Acemoglu/James A. Robinson) [Definitions] State-governed entity with settled population occupying permanent area with recognized borders EX: Sudan and South Sudan Sovereignty-authority exercised by state over its population and its territory EX: Christiania Internal affairs-matters that individual states consider beyond reach of international law or influence of other states Nation-large group of people sharing common, cultural, religious, and linguistic features and distinguishing themselves from other large social groups Separatism-advocate of or attempt to establish separate national within another sovereign state State Government-institution with the authority to formulate and enforce its decisions within a country’s borders Foreign policy-complex system of actions involving official decisions or communications related to other nation states, international institutions or international developments Diplomacy-practice of managing international relations by negotiations Intergovernmental organizations-(IGO) association of several nation-states or nongovernmental organizations for the purpose of international cooperation Nongovernmental organizations-(NGO) public or private group unaffiliated formally with government and attempting to influence foreign policy in order to raise international concerns about a domestic problem or domestic concerns about global issue, and to offer solutions Weapons of Mass Destruction-nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that can quickly and indiscriminately kill millions of people Nuclear proliferation-spread of nuclear weapons, material, information, and technologies to create nuclear weapons Eyewitness accounts-descriptions of events by individuals who observed them directly Content analysis-research method that systematically organizes and summarizes both what was actually said or written and its hidden meanings Intelligence-information about interests, intentions, capabilities, and actions of foreign countries; this includes government officials, political parties, the functioning of their economies, activities of NGOs and behavior of private individuals Survey-investigative method in which groups of people answer questions on certain topic Focus group-survey method involving small discussion groups used intensively in foreign policy planning, conflict resolutions analysis and academic research Experiment-research method that puts participants in controlled testing conditions. When varying the conditions researchers can examine behavior or responses of participants Analysis-breaking down complex hole into smaller parts to understand its essential features and their relationships Theory-general concept or scheme that one applies to facts in order to analyze them Parochialism-worldview limited to the small piece of land on which we live or to the narrow experience we have Globalization-growing interdependence of countries and their economics, the growing importance of international exchanges of goods and ideas and increased openness to innovation Anti-globalization- resistance to globalization or active return to traditional communities, customs, and religion
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