Reli 212: Chapter 2
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ghost21 on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 77695 at George Mason University taught by Ro in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Religions of Asia Dr.Ro World Religions: Eastern Traditions Chapter 2—Part 1 Hindu Traditions [World View] Religionreligioreigare=link Creation [Traditions at a glance] -950 million-1 billion followers -primarily in India -Supreme being: “The Ineffable Brahman” (Oxtoby 28) -Authoritative Text: Vedas -teachings: human soul as immortal, believing that when it reaches liberation it will be freed from karma and rebirth [Chapter overview] -earliest composition in Hindu traditionsVedas: four collections of hymns and texts said to have been revealed to Rishis (seers) by sound and sight Shruti (“that which is heard”) (Oxtoby 29) -Darshanapilgrimage/visit to temple with purpose to see and be seen by Guru (deity) -“Hinduism” shorthand for diverse philosophies, arts, branches of knowledge and practices associated with people and communities connected to Indian subcontinent -another term is sanatana dharma“eternal faith” [Origin] -grown from fusion of indigenous religions of Indus Valley with faith of Aryans (1750-1500 BCE) -either migrated from Asia or that Indian subcontinent itself was original homeland Harappa Culture -people of Harappa civilization were great builders who appear to have lived in planned cities archaeologists found a huge swimming-pool-like structure with porticos and flights of stairs, naming it “the Great Bath” Ideas that its use may have been for religious means homes with rooms for fire alters Stone sculptures Terracotta statuettes looking like mother goddess likely used as icons in worship The Vedas -Vedas: Sanskrit knowledge -concept of ‘existence’; of being and non-being -collection of four sections Rig Veda Sama Veda Yajur Veda Atharva Veda hymns/directions for the performance of sacred rituals(Brahmanas) philosophical works: Upanishads -Atharva Veda used for incantations and remedies to ward off illness and evil spirits Creation Hymn, Rig Veda 10.129 (full passage page 36) -expresses wonder at creation of universe from nothing, when ending with idea of possibility that none know how it came to beineffable -elements of the universe said to come from sacrifice: Mind came the moon Eye came the sun Indra (warrior god) and Agni from mouth Wind came from breath Navel came space Head came the sky Feet came the earth Ears came the four directions o “Thus the worlds were created” (Oxtoby 36) Mouth came the priestly class Arms came the rulers Legs came the producers Feet came the servants o Origins of the four classes Varnas Upanishads a. Rethought and reformulated early hymns and sacrificial rituals b. Takes from of conversations (philosophical) between teacher and student c. Karma (“action”) refers to system of rewards and punishments attached to actions i. Concept of continuous cycle of death and rebirth—reincarnation (Samsara) ii. Freedom (moksha) of cycle requires transforming experiential wisdom 1. Thru wisdom, achieve immortality Atman and Brahman a. Relationship between human soul (Atman) and Supreme Being (Brahman) Women in the Vedas -women teachers and mother constantly mentioned in Upanishads and Vedas Gargi and Maitreyi were honored and respected for their wisdom
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