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PSYC2001, Unit 3, Chapter 6

by: Kylie Flowers

PSYC2001, Unit 3, Chapter 6 Psyc 2001

Kylie Flowers
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About this Document

These notes cover all of unit 3 from the McGraw Hill online book.
Introduction to Psychology
Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Bridges
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology, psyc2001, psych




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Flowers on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2001 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Louisiana at Monroe.

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Date Created: 09/10/16
Unit 3 – Chapter 6 Classical Conditioning Learning – a relatively permanent change in behavior brought by experience • association is key to learning Habituation – decrease in response to a stimulus after repeatedly being exposed to the same stimulus • permits us to ignore something that has stopped providing new information ~ Learning is the core of classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov – developed classical conditioning • M.D. studying digestion “accidentally” discovered classical conditioning Classical Conditioning – type of learning where a neutral stimulus brings a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally causes the desired response ~ Neutral Stimulus – before conditioning, does not cause the desired response ~ Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – naturally causes a specific response that wasn’t learned ~ Unconditioned Response (UCR) – a natural response that wasn’t learned ~ Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – a neutral stimulus paired with an unconditioned stimulus that causes a response that used to only be caused by the UCS ~ Conditioned Response (CR) - a response, after conditioning, that follows a previously neutral stimulus • conditioned = learned unconditioned = not learned • an unconditioned stimulus brings and unconditioned response • pairing unconditioned stimulus with unconditioned response are things not learned or trained • neural stimulus will always become the conditioned stimulus • conditioned stimulus leads to conditioned response • pairing of conditioned stimulus and conditioned response is caused by learning Applying Classical Conditioning • emotional responses are especially likely to be learned through classical conditioning • PTSD can be caused by classical conditioning • pleasant experiences can also be caused by classical conditioning Extinction - when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears • to produce extinction, one must end the association between the conditioned stimuli and unconditioned stimuli Spontaneous Recovery – the reemergence of a previously extinct conditioned response Stimulus Generalization – after a stimulus has been conditioned to cause a response, stimuli that are similar start to cause the same response i. e., a bell and a buzzer Stimulus Discrimination – two different stimuli where one causes a conditioned response and the other does not Taste Aversion – when the taste of a particular food is associated with unpleasant symptoms John Garcia believed organisms were biologically prepared to learn to avoid foods that smelled or tasted like something that made them sick Unit 3 – Chapter 6 Operant Conditioning - when a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on the favorable or unfavorable consequences Voluntary Responses – produced deliberately to receive desired outcome Thorndike’s Law of Effect – responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated • Thorndike’s goal in his experiment was to get his cats to learn to escape to obtain the food • Skinner’s used a Skinner Box to get the animals to work with their environment to obtain food Reinforcement - central concept of operant conditioning - when a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Reinforcer – any stimulus that increases a probability that a preceding behavior will occur again Primary Reinforcer – satisfies biological needs and works naturally Secondary Reinforcer – becomes reinforcing because of its association with a primary reinforcer Positive Reinforcer – a stimulus added to the environment that brings an increase in a preceding response Negative Reinforcer – the removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability that a preceding response will be repeated Examples: - Positive Reinforcer - paychecks increase the likelihood of an employee returning to work - Negative Reinforcer - using an ointment that removes an itchy rash increases the likelihood that you’ll use the ointment again on future rashes Punishment – a stimulus that decreases the probability of a behavior reoccurring • Positive Punishment - weakens a response by applying an unpleasant stimulus ~ i.e. a spanking for a misbehaving child • Negative Punishment – removing something pleasant ~ i.e. being grounded for bad grades - punishment can reduce self-esteem of recipients unless they understand the reasons for it - for punishment to work, it must be accompanied by information about the behavior being punished, along with suggestions of better behavior ~ both positive and negative punishment decrease the likelihood that a prior behavior will be repeated ~ reinforcement increases frequency in behavior ~ applying a positive stimulus, or positive reinforcement, causes increase of behavior; applying a negative stimulus, or punishment, decreases behavior ~ removal of a negative stimulus, or negative reinforcement, causes increase in behavior; removal of a positive stimulus, or negative punishment, decreases behavior Unit 3 – Chapter 6 Schedules of Reinforcement - frequency and timing of reinforcement that follows desired behavior Continuous Reinforcement – reinforcing behavior every time it occurs Partial Reinforcement – reinforcing behavior some but not all the time - partial reinforcement schedules maintain performance longer than continuous reinforcement schedules before extinction would occur Fixed-Ratio Schedule – reinforcement given only after a specific number of responses - causes people to work as quickly as possible i.e. garment workers being paid according to the number of blouses they sew Variable-Ratio Schedule – reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses - lead to a high rate of response and resistance to extinction i.e. telephone salesperson making sales on the 3 , 4 , 9 , and 20 calls but none in-between Fixed Interval Schedule – reinforcement only after a fixed time has passed - rates of responses are low i.e. when periods between exams are long, students study minimally Variable-Interval Schedule – time between reinforcements varies rather than being fixed - decreases delay in response i.e students that receive pop quizzes at varying times would study more Stimulus Control Training – behavior reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus, but not in its absence Discriminative Stimulus – signals the likelihood that reinforcement will follow a response i.e. waiting for someone to be in a good mood to ask to borrow their favorite CD Stimulus Generalization – having the same response to two different but similar stimuli i.e. someone behaving negatively to a whole group of a specific race because on one unpleasant experience Shaping – process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer to approximations of the desired behavior Biological Constraints – built-in limitations in the ability to learn particular behaviors Behavior Modification – a formalized technique that promotes the frequency of desired behaviors and decreasing the unwanted ones People in behavior-change programs follow a series of steps: 1. Identifying goals and target behavior 2. Recording preliminary data 3. Selecting a behavior-change program 4. Implementing the program 5. Keeping records after implementing the program 6. Evaluating and altering the program Cognitive Approaches • Cognitive Learning Theory – thought process that underlies learning • Latent Learning – new behavior that is learned but not demonstrated until incentive is provided; occurs without reinforcement • Cognitive Map – mental representations of spatial locations and directions Unit 3 – Chapter 6 Observational Learning - learning by watching the behavior of others - social cognitive Mirror Neurons – fire when we observe another person carrying out a behavior - suggests that capacity to imitate is innate • most psychologists agree that watching high levels of media violence makes viewers more susceptible to acting aggressively


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