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BIO 1102 how cells work

by: Ashley Beals

BIO 1102 how cells work BIO 1102

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Biology > BIO 1102 > BIO 1102 how cells work
Ashley Beals

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Notes from 9/9 class
Foundations of Biology
A. Fry
Class Notes
Science, Bio
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Beals on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1102 at University of Connecticut taught by A. Fry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology in Biology at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Energy: The capacity to do work  1st Law of Thermodynamics: Energy can be changed from one form to another but cannot be  created or destroyed. Each time energy changes from, some is lost, usually as heat.  What is life’s main energy source? Sunlight  What is life’s main energy carrying molecule? ATP­ adenosine tri­phosphate  How does ATP transfer energy? It gives up its third phosphate group to become ADP   Transfer of a phosphate group is called phosphorylation or dephosphorylation. ADP+P=ATP  What are redox reactions? Oxidation­ reduction reactions. Electrons are transferred from one  molecule to another.  A molecule is ​oxidized​ if it gives up electrons a​ educed ​ if it gains electrons.  Electron transport chains: Molecules that accept and give up electrons in sequence. Electrons  can give up energy at each step in the chain.  Metabolic pathways: An enzyme controlled sequence of chemical reactions.  a. Anabolic pathways​: require inputs of energy. Construct high energy molecules from  smaller molecules. The most important anabolic pathway is photosynthesis.  b. Catabolic pathways: release energy. Break down molecules into smaller, low energy  products. Most important catabolic pathway is cellular respiration  What are enzymes made from? Proteins  Substrate: molecules that bind to enzymes  Active site: location on enzyme where substrate binds.  Activation energy: the energy needed to start a chemical reaction.  How do enzymes work?They lower activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction.  Enzymes are important because  a. Make chemical reactions faster  b. They can be reused  c. Lower activation energy  Control over enzymes  a. Co­factors:​ help enzyme function properly  b. Environmental factors:​ Temp, pH, and salt have to be at a specific range for enzymes to  work properly  c. Allosteric activation or inhibiti​  other molecules that bind to an enzyme change the  shape of the active site to block or allow reaction.  d. Feedback inhibition:​ When a reaction product becomes too common  Solvent: Something that dissolves something else.  Solute: the stuff dissolved by a solvent  Solution: A solvent plus solute(s)  Diffusion: solute moves from area of high concentration to low concentration  Osmosis: movement of water from area of high to low concentration  Study tip: In diffusion the solute wants to move, in osmosis the solvent (water) wants to move  What drives the movement of molecules in diffusion and osmosis?  a. Heat energy colliding molecules. Steeper concentration gradient faster diffusion.  b. Smaller solutes diffuse faster   c. Higher temperature= faster diffusion  Reverse osmosis: Purify water by forcing it through a semipermeable membrane to filter out  contaminants.  SA/V ratio: the surface area to volume ratio gets smaller as cell gets larger  If a cell gets ​too big ​its ​surface are​ cannot keep up with the increasing v ​ olume  ​ inside the cell  and the cell won’t be able to move resources across the ​cell membrane  ​ fast enough.  What can cross the cell membrane? Hydrophobic molecules: O​  CO​ . small 2​npol2​ molecules.  What can not cross the cell membrane? Hydrophilic molecules: glucose, ions and large polar  molecules.  Passive transport: does not require energy. Movement concentration gradient high to low.   Active transport: Does require energy. Movement against concentration gradient. Low to high.  Exocytosis: moving something outside the cell   Endocytosis: moving something from outside the to inside the cell  Phagocytosis: cell eating.    


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