Hth 245 - week of 9/5/2016
Hth 245 - week of 9/5/2016 HTH 245
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 245 at James Madison University taught by Dayna Henry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Infectious Disease in Health Sciences at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
HTH245 – Week of 9/5/2016 Chapter 2 Cell Theory o 1. All organisms are composed of fundamental units called cells o 2. All organisms are single-celled or multi-celled not true for viruses/prions, which are acellular, subcellular, or biological agents o 3. All cells are fundamentally alike with regard to their structure and metabolism o 4. Cells only arise from previously existing cells (life begets life) Metabolic Diversity o *one requirement for life (Table 2.1) is energy production o heterotrophs: make energy by metabolizing complex, organic compounds o autotrophs: directly sue energy from the sun = photosynthetic use metabolism of inorganic compounds = chemosynthetic Requirement for Oxygen o Aerobes: require oxygen o Anaerobes: do not require oxygen o Facultative Anaerobes: do not require oxygen, but grow better if it is present Genetic Information o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Segment of DNA = gene What Makes a Microbe? o Levels of size Subcellular Prions Viruses Unicellular Protozoans Bacteria Multicellular Algae Fungi o ALL microbes are devoid of tissues Either subcellular or at cellular level (cell tissue organ system) Prokaryote v. Eukaryote o Prokaryote is much simpler than eukaryote and has no membrane around nucleus and no organelles Microbial Evolution and Diversity o Whitaker’s 5 Kingdoms ANIMALIA FUNGI PLANTAE PROTISTA MONERA o Woese’s 3 Domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Archaea = extremophiles o Hyperthermophiles = extreme heat o Psychrophiles = extreme cold o Halophiles = extreme salinity (salt) i.e. The Dead Sea Introducing Microbes o All microbes have DNA and RNA Except prions/microbes Prions o Protenaceous Infectious Particles o No DNA/RNA o Exist normally in the human brain and are harmless o Infectious prions turn other normal, healthy prions into infectious ones (i.e. mad cow disease) Viruses o Have DNA or RNA, but never both 2 o Obligate intracellular parasites Need to be inside living cells (a host) to replicate Bacteria o Microscopic, unicellular, prokaryotic, have cell walls o Asexual reproduction by binary fission o Autotrophs Protozoans o Unicellular eukaryotic o Classified by means of locomotion o Heterotrophs Algae o Photosynthetic eukaryotes o Unicellular algae (i.e. dinoflagelletes) Fungi o Eukaryotes o Yeasts v molds Yeasts: Unicellular Reproduce by budding Molds: Multicellular Possess hyphae o Lots of opportunistic infections Chapter 3 Microbes in the Environment o Decomposers Ecosystem = population of organisms in a particular physical and chemical environment Biotic components v. abiotic components Biotic = animals, plants Abiotic = physical, chemical Primary producers 3 Photosynthetic organisms that produces organic compounds and oxygen Consumers Inhale oxygen, exhale carbondioxide Decomposers Recyclers (link consumers and producers) o Biochemical Cycles Bacteria are basis for biochemical cycles Examples Carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and iron cycles Microbes in Food Production o Mushrooms Can be poisonous/deadly Can be a nutritionally-rich food o Algae Common food in some societies (i.e. China) o Fermentation Series of chemical reactions mediated by enzymes of a variety of bacteria and yeast that break down sugar to small molecules *anaerobic process *glucose –> lactic acid/ethanol and oxygen bread fermentation by yeast creates carbon dioxide (ethanol evaporates) and causes bread to rise (leavening) dairy texture, aroma, taste production process and microorganisms lactic-acid producing bacteria = enzyme rennin wine, beer, alcohol enology = science of wine-making distilled spirits = brandy, whiskey, rum, vodka, and gin 4 o similar to wine fermentation Harnessing Microbes as Research Tools o Genetic Engineering = recombinant DNA technology o Human Genome Project (1990) Mapping of 25,000 genes in the 23 pairs of human chromosomes o Microbial Genome Project (1994) Goal = sequencing genomes of medically, environmentally, and industrially significant microbes o Gene therapy and insertion of modified DNA into a patient’s cells to treat disease Harnessing Microbes in Industry o Characteristics that promote microbes use as microbial factories: High surface area to volume ration = rapid replication Versatile, can be grown in large scales in a variety of growth conditions Some products can only be produced by microbes Produce a large variety of enzymes (that can be harvested) Can be genetically engineered to produce biological products that can prevent medical problems (i.e. cardiac disease) Cost-effective o Biotechnological Human insulin/growth hormone Vaccines Virotherapy (gene therapy using viral vectors) o Agriculture Bioinstecticides Harnessing Microbes for Bioremediation o Bioremediation: act of adding materials to the environment to increase rate of biodegradation o Bioaugmentation: spraying nutrients onto problem sites to accelerate growth of microbes to accelerate degradation of pollutant Sewage and Water Treatment 5 o Use microbes to clean water 6
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