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BSC 1005 Ch. 3

by: Cristina Rodriguez

BSC 1005 Ch. 3 BSC 1005

Cristina Rodriguez

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BSC 1005 Ch. 3
Lab-BIOL 1005-010
Diane Lowell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Rodriguez on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Diane Lowell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 2 Definition Review Primary Structure – sequence of amino acids Hydrophilic – water loving Hydrophobic – Water hating  Cell – basic structural unit of life  pH – the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution  Buffer – weak acid or base Review  There are 4 types of macromolecules make up living things ­ Carbs ­ Proteins ­ Lipids ­ Nucleic Acid  Carbs are sugars and are used or structural support and to store and release energy  There are 20 amino acids  Proteins are polypeptides  Primary structure determines the folding of the protein  Nucleotide can be used for energy and make up nucleic acid  DNA = deoxyribose – AGCT = Double stranded helix  RNA = ribose – AGUC = single strand   Lipids are made out of monomers  Lipids are hydrophobic (they don’t mix with water)  Fats are bonded to glycerol with phosphate  Phospholipids have a hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads   Cells are water­filled sacs bounded by a cell membrane  All cells have the same basic architecture  Viruses are not cells  Hydrogen bonds for with both water and other molecules  pH can range from 0 to 14 with 0 being the most acidic 7 being negative and 14 being the most basic Chapter 3 Definition  Colony ­ a reproducing bacteria Antibiotics – chemicals that kill bacteria Cell Theory – all living things are made of cells Prokaryotic cells ­ lack internal membrane – bound organelles Eukaryotic cells – have membrane – bound organelles including a nucleus Membrane – a flexible yet sturdy structure the forms a boundary between the external  environment and the cell’s watery cytoplasm Cytoplasm ­ gelatinous aqueous interior Ribosome – a complex of RNA and proteins that carry out protein synthesis DNA – molecule of heredity Nucleus – an organelle that contains the DNA  Peptidoglycan – a polymer made of sugar and amino acids Hypotonic – less solutes outside more solutes inside Hypertonic – more solutes outside less solutes inside Isotonic – same solutes inside and outside Osmosis – the diffusion of water across semipermeable membrane from an area of lower –  solute Gram – positive ­ cell wall with layer of peptidoglycan that retains the Gram stain Gram – negative – cell wall layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by lipid membrane that does  not retain the Gram stain and prevents penicillin from reaching the peptidoglycan underneath Simple diffusion – the natural tendency to dissolved substance to move from an area of  higher concentration to one of lower concentration  Mitochondria – cells power plant Important Information  Penicillium Notatum is capable of killing many kinds of bacteria  You cannot become resistant to antibiotics but the bacteria can  Antibiotics are often naturally produced by living organisms  All new cells come from the division of preexisting cell  Not all cells are alike. They came in all shapes and sizes and perform many different  function depending on where they are found  Both have DNA, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and cell membrane  Prokaryotic cells have a cell wall  Eukaryotic cells don’t have a cell wall unless they are a plant  Both plant and animal cells are Eukaryotic  Bacteria are prokaryotic   Only eukaryotic cells have a nucleus   Only prokaryotic cells have their DNA floating freely in cytoplasm, no organelles  and have a cell wall  Eukaryotic cells are much larger than prokaryotic cells  Antibiotics target prokaryotic cells  Bacterial cell walls are rigid due to peptidoglycan  Peptidoglycan allows bacteria to survive in watery environment  Gram – positive = purple color  Gram – negative = no purple color  Streptomycin interferes with prokaryotic ribosomes and leaves eukaryotic ribosomes  unaffected  Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have ribosomes, but their ribosomes are of  different sizes and have different structures   Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis   Transport proteins sit in the membrane bilayer and acts as a channel, carrier or pump  and can move substances with or against concentration gradient  Facilitated diffusion is when large solutes move across a membrane from higher  concentration to lower concentration with eh help of transport proteins and requires  no energy  Active transport is when solutes are pumped from lower concentration to higher  concentration with the help of transport proteins and requires energy


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