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Intro to Geology, Week 2 Notes

by: Kayla Mathias

Intro to Geology, Week 2 Notes GEL020

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Geology > GEL020 > Intro to Geology Week 2 Notes
Kayla Mathias
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover the last portion of chapter 1 and the beginning of chapter 2. Rocks and minerals are contrasted and defined.
Introduction to Geology
Dr. Tindall
Class Notes
Geology, Introtogeology, rocks, minerals, Properties of Minerals, atoms, elements, Molecules, compounds
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEL020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Tindall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
Intro to Geology—Week 2 Notes 6/9/16 Earth, cont. Only 8 elements are found in abundance on Earth Parts of the crust (mainly Silicon and Oxygen) 1. Continental Crust 2. Oceanic Crust (ground under the oceans are made up of different materials than the ground above water) The majority of the Earth is the mantel (Silicon-Si, Oxygen-O, Magnesium-Mg, and Iron-Fe) The core is made almost entirely of iron and a little bit of nickel-Ni Compositional Layers gd R — ee Physicap (strength) Layers os ih L kae W— eehpsoneht s A C u — ove abetom o e, but d st enospher e thanrthanast s D en—Harde e esanpler M M Outer Core—Liquid (melted iron and nickel Inner Core—Solid Coe — Most Dense Radius of the Earth: 6,371 km; Approx. 4,000 miles Chapter 2—Minerals Rocks and Minerals are NOT the same thing -Rock: Aggregate of minerals (a bunch of minerals smooshed together) -Mineral: A (1) naturally occurring, (2) inorganic (3) solid with a (4) definite chemical composition and an (5) orderly arrangement of atoms. KNOW THIS DEFINITION!!!!! Example: Diamonds and graphite are both made out of carbon, but their atoms are arranged differentlypolymorphs Physical Properties of minerals: 1. Color 2. Luster: quality of reflective light (glassy, waxy, dull, pearly, or metallic appearance) 3. Hardness: Resistance to scratching (Mohs Hardness Scale goes from talc (1) to diamond (10)) 4. Streak: the color of the mineral when it’s powdered 5. Density (specific to gravity): how heavy it is for its size 7/9 6. Cleavage: Tendency for some minerals to break in a specific way (closely- spaced, parallel planes of weakness in the atomic structure) 7. Crystal form: how the mineral grows 8. Others: taste, odor, feel, reaction to chemicals How to identify a mineral: Observe physical properties (scratch it, draw with it, sniff it, etc.)Use observations to make an educated guess Where physical properties come from: -Elements in the periodic table -Elements are arranged by atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom) -Protons are positively charged with an atomic mass of 1 -Neutrons have no charge and an atomic mass of 1 -Electrons are negatively charged and are located outside the nucleus Element: A fundamental substance that can’t be broken down into anything else using chemistry Atom: Smallest individual particle of an element Molecule: Smallest individual particle of a compound Compound: One or more types of atoms that are bonded together Atoms make molecules, molecules make compounds Four types of chemical bonds in minerals 1. Ionic Bond: Electron swapping (makes minerals soft and soluble in water) 2. Covalent Bond (strongest bond): Electron sharing (makes minerals hard, shiny, and not soluble in water) 3. Metallic Bond: Electron orgy (makes minerals good heat and electric conductors) 4. Van der Waals Bond: Weak attraction (minerals break apart very easilygraphite and muscovite mica) Most common minerals are Silicates (silicon and oxygen)


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