Chemistry Chapter One Notes
Chemistry Chapter One Notes CHM 1045
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicola Crouch on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 1045 at Florida State University taught by Robert Cameron in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chemistry (CHM 1045) Chapter One What is -A constantly changing science that impacts the Chemistry? world on a daily basis -Ancient but by all means a modern science the study of matter and the changes it undergoes chemistry What is the Scientific Method? a universal way to collect and analyze data scientific method Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Identify a problem or mystery 2. Design an experiment a. Careful and accurate measurements and observations are essential 3. Collect Data a. Data collected could be qualitative as well as quantitative qualitative data pertains to data gathered that can be generally observed quantitative data (ex. Color change) consists of data measured during the experiment (ex. Temperature change) b. Measurements are made with a universal measuring system to ensure consistency 4. Interpretation a. The scientist attempts to explain the phenomenon recorded during the experiments with the formation of a hypothesis b. The validity of the hypothesis is then re-tested in multiple ways c. A hypothesis may (or may not!) evolve into hypothesis either a law or a theory (or maybe both) a provisional explanation for the results of an law experiment theory verbal or mathematical statement of a phenomenon that will always yield the same results in the same particular conditions a principle that explains a set of facts or data but is How is matter not set in stone classified? matter anything that takes up space and has mass substance - to make classifications between matter there are several subgroups based on composition and mixture properties matter with a constant composition and discrete properties a combination of two or more substances where the substances keep their discrete properties. -Mixtures do not have the same composition like stand alone substances -Mixtures can be heterogeneous or homogenous -Either type can be separated by physical means into pure components homogenous -The resulting components will have the same mixture properties as they started with -Ex. Heating sugar water until the water is heterogeneous completely evaporated and all that is left is sugar mixture identical composition throughout the entire mixture mixture in which the components remain separate and the composition is not identical element -Substances can be either elements or compounds a substance that cannot be separated into smaller substances -Elements are created naturally as well as by scientists -They are organized on a periodic table based on compound chemical and physical properties a. distinguished by a one to two letter abbreviation b. the first letter is always capital, the second is not -Atoms in these elements can interact and form a compound a substance composed of the atoms of two or more elements that are bound chemically in fixed ratios - What are the three states of matter? Compounds are unlike mixtures in that they have to be separated chemically to return to their pure constituents solid liquid gas -Every substance, in theory, can exist in three different states a. solid, liquid and gas - Substances can change between states without affecting their composition a state in which molecules are held closely together and do not move or change shape a state in which molecules are close together but What are the able to slide past each other, takes the shape of its chemical and container with a fixed volume physical properties of matter? a state with large and differentiating distances between molecules, takes the shape and volume of the container
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