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Honors' Psychology week 3 notes

by: Douglas Rutana

Honors' Psychology week 3 notes PSYC 1560H

Marketplace > Youngstown State University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 1560H > Honors Psychology week 3 notes
Douglas Rutana

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About this Document

These notes cover mostly chapter 3.
Honors' Psychology
Dr. Lindberg
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Douglas Rutana on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1560H at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Lindberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Honors' Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Youngstown State University.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Neurons Friday, September 2, 2016 10:06 AM  What are the basic elements of the nervous system?  How does the nervous system communicate electrical and chemical messages from one part of to another?  Neurons - nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system o Consist of a cell body that contains a nucleus o Physically held in place by glial cells which  Provide nourishment to neurons and insulate them  Help repair damage  Support and speed up functioning o Distinctive feature of neurons  Ability to communicate with other cells  Transmission of information across relatively long distances o Parts of the neurons  Dendrite- cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons  Axon- part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons  Terminal buttons- small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons  Myelin sheath- protective coat of fat (glial cells) and protein that wraps around the axon  How Neurons Fire o Neurons follow an all-or-none law: rule that neurons are either on or of o Resting state- state which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron o Action potential- electric nerve impulse that travels through a neuron's axon when it is set of by a "trigger", changing the neuron's charge from a negative to positive  Speed of transmission o Speed at which an action potential travels along an axon is determined by the:  Axon's size  Thickness of the myelin sheath o Neurons difer in terms of  Quickness of an impulse moving along the axon  Potential rate of firing o Intensity of a stimulus determines how much of a neuron's potential firing rate is reached  Where Neurons Meet: Bridging the Gap o Synapse: Space between 2 neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages o Neurotransmitters: chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron o Types of chemical messages  Excitatory messages: makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon  Inhibitory messages: prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire o Every Neuron is not capable of receiving the chemical message carried by a neurotransmitter  Successful chemical communication is possible only when a neurotransmitter fits precisely into a receptor site o Neurotransmitters remaining at the site of the synapse lead to:  Receiving neurons awash, in a continual chemical bath  Producing constant stimulation or constant inhibition of the receiving neurons  Efective communication across the synapse would no longer be possible o Reuptake: reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button  Acetylcholine - neurons that instruct muscles to contract  Dopamine- dopamine circuits support anticipation of rewards, motor control, and controlled cognition  Serotonin- used in brain areas that regulate sleep cycles, mood, memory, and learning Neurotransmitters Wednesday, September 7, 2016 10:02 AM  Serotonin o Used in brain areas that regulate sleep cycles, mood, memory, and learning  Endorphins o Modulate senses of pain and pleasure, as well as feelings like "runner's high" Module 6 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 10:07 AM How are the structures of the nervous system linked? Central and Peripheral Nervous System  Central Nervous system (CNS) o Part of the nervous system that includes brain and spinal cord  Spinal cord- bundle of neurons that leaves the brain and runs down the back  Main means of transmitting messages between the brain and body  Controls simple behaviors on its own, w/o any help from brain  Reflex: automatic, involuntary response to incoming stimulus  Kinds of neurons involved in reflex o Sensory (aferent) neurons- transmit info from the perimeter of the body to CNS  Brings about the sensation o Motor (eferent) neurons- communicate info from the nervous system to muscles and glands  Causes change  Peripheral Nervous System o Made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites, it branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body o Includes:  Somatic- specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of info to and from the sense organs  Autonomic- controls involuntary movement of the heart, glands, lungs, and other organs  Activating the Divisions of the autonomic nervous system o Autonomic nervous system consists of  Sympathetic division - acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organisms resources to respond to a threat  Parasympathetic division - acts to calm the body after an emergency has ended The Endocrine System: Of chemicals and glands  Endocrine system: chemical communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream  Hormones: chemicals that circulate through the blood and regulate the functioning or growth of the body  Pituitary Gland: major component of the endocrine system, "master gland" o Secretes hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system Module 7: The Brain Wednesday, September 7, 2016 10:27 AM Studying the brain's structure and functions: spying on the brain  Electroencephalogram (EEG) o Records electrical activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the outside of the skull  Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) o Provides detailed 3d computer image of the brain structures and activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the body  Positron Emission Tomography (PET) o Shows biochemical activity within the brain at a given moment  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) o Causes a momentary interruption of electrical activity by exposing a tiny region of the brain to a strong magnetic field "Old Brain"  Central Core  Controls basic functions such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates  Hindbrain o Medulla - controls critical body functions o Pons - bridge in the hindbrain  Acts as a transmitter of motor info  Involved in regulating sleep o Cerebellum - part of the brain that controls bodily balance  Reticular Formation - extends from the medulla through the pons, passing through the midbrain and forebrain  Thalamus - part located in the middle of the central core that acts primarily to relay info about the senses  Hypothalamus - tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior o Maintain homeostasis o Produces and regulates behavior that is critical The Limbic System: "Beyond the central Core"  Limbic system - part of the brain that controls eating aggression and reproduction o Consists of amygdala and hippocampus o Plays important role in learning and memory, along with hippocampus o Otherwise referred to as "animal brain", due to similarities in structures and functions to those of other mammals The Cerebral Cortex: "The New Brain"  Responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain  Lobes: 4 major sections o Frontal - front part  Latest to fully develop  Reasoning, problem solving, etc..  Motor cortex in the back of the frontal lobe o Parietal- behind frontal lobe  Sensory cortex - feel sensations, etc.. o Temporal - sides of the new brain  Processing of auditory sound, understand and produce language o Occipital - in the back  Primary visual cortex, detecting movement, processing color, processing vision  Visual information  Motor area: responsible for the body's voluntary movement  Sensory area: site of tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue  Association areas: site of higher mental processes o Thought, language, memory, speech Neuroplasticity and the brain  Neuroplasticity o Changes in the brain that occur throughout the life span relating to the addition of new neurons o New interconnections between neurons o Reorganization of information-processing areas  Neurogenesis - creation of new neurons in certain areas of the brain during adulthood  If the brain is damaged especially in the general association areas of the cortex o The brain does not repair damaged neurons, BUT it can restore some functions o It can form new connections, reassign existing networks, and insert new neurons, some grown from stem cells The specialization of the hemispheres: 2 brains or one?  Brain is divided into two roughly mirror-image halves  Hemispheres: symmetrical left and right halves of the brain that control the side of the body opposite their location  Lateralization: dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions o language


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