Psyc 1012nd class
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelise on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Winthrop University taught by Donna Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Psyc 101001 Class 2 Aug. 25 2016 (Tuesday) Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Behavior: overt actions and reactions Mental Processes: internal, covert activity of the mind (thoughts and emotions) Research starts with observation & curiosity Hypothesis: belief or assertion as to the relationship between 2 or more occurrences. Research questions/ hypothesis maybe based on personal observations EX) “opposites attract” Scientific Method Psychology is different from “Folk Wisdom” Because Psyc. is an “empirical” science Using objective data collection, the validity of personal observation & theories we develop based on personal experience can be tested Develop: refine theories in light of findings Theory: exploration that organizes principals, predicts behavior or events. EX) Opposites in romance do not attract because disagreements and conflict are common and unpleasant. GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY DESCRIPTION: “What’s Happening?” Ex) Bob an imprisoned sex offender is looking to be released on probation. PREDICTION: “ Will it happen again?” Ex) Is Bob likely to be a repeat offender. EXPLORATION: “ Why is it happening?” Ex) based on psychological testing and the statistic of sexual predator more than likely bob will be a repeat offender. CONTROL: “How do we stop this from happening? Or change the outcome?” Ex) from what I can see its best that we keep bob until his test show that he has been rehabilitated. Collecting Data Observation (observing and recording behavior) 1. Participation observation: observing from the inside of the group. ( have multiple researcher participate in case one becomes attach to the “group” and taints data) 2. Outside observation: observing from the outside of the group. Interrater reliability: have multiple people observing come together to compare data. Archival analysis: examining accumulated documents (school records, diaries, novels, magazines, newspapers & etc.). Surveys (written or oral) (questions people are asked to answer in the name of research) used in correlational research Correlational Research Explores naturally occurring relationships *used to understand relationships among variables *allows testing of predictions but does not specify cause and effect. Correlation Coefficients Positive correlation: as one variable goes up so does the other Negative correlation: as one variable goes up the other goes down Correlation is ranked 1 to 1 Closer to 0 the weaker the correlation Closer to 1 or 1 the stronger the correlation Research Methods Correlation approach Ex) Hypothesis: excessive time spent on Facebook is linked with depression ex2) high selfesteem = achievement/ success ex3) social success & scholastic achievement = raised self esteem However CORRELATION ≠ CAUSATION Leading us to limitations in the correlation approach: we cannot be sure if any of the fore mentioned cause and effect explanations are correct due to the lack of control of subject and environment Experimental research approach (search for cause and effect) Control: manipulating variables Independent Variables: experimental factor that researcher manipulates ^^ will have at least 2 conditions experimental and control. Dependent Variable: variable being measured; depends on the manipulation of the independent variable. Internal validity *groups same except for independent variable *establish random assignment EX) Hypothesis: exposure to violent video games causes aggression Independent Variable (operational) exposure to violent media Dependent Variable (operational) Aggression Problem of “demand characteristic” – if participants know the purpose of the experiment this could contaminate their responses (especially when studying sensitive topics such as aggression, researchers often employ a cover story)
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