Sykes-Picot Agreement, Balfour Declaration, Husayn-McMahon Correspondence
Sykes-Picot Agreement, Balfour Declaration, Husayn-McMahon Correspondence HIST 3121
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3121 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Michael Kozakowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see World at War 1914-1945 in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Cydney Tinsley World at War Sykes-Picot Agreement, Husayn-McMahon Letters, Balfour Declaration Sykes-Picot Agreement The assigned reading for these notes can be found in “The Middle East and Islamic World Reader” by Marvin Gettleman and Stuart Schaar, pages 116 and 118. 1. Mark Sykes of Britain and Francois George Picot met up during the war to discuss the division of what was left of the Middle Eastern countries. 2. Russia was a part of the alliance, so both Sykes and Picot had to get approval from Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Sazanoff. 3. A letter was sent from the British to the French to go over the terms of this agreement. There were four main clauses in this letter. Essentially, they said: a. France and Britain will each have part of the Arab nations. France and Britain will have rights to enterprise and loans and will be in charge of supplying advisors for the states. b. Britain gets to choose which parts of the Middle Eastern states France and Britain get. c. France and Britain will talk with Russian and decide upon an international administration that will be located in Jerusalem. d. Britain will have the ports and guaranteed water supplies, in return for their agreement to not negotiate the cession of Cyprus without French consent. Husayn-McMahon Letters The assigned reading for these notes can be found in “Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East” by Akram Fouad Khater, Part 1, and Chapter 1. The letters are between Sharif Husayn of the Arabian Nations and Henry McMahon of Great Britain. Husayn was willing to open negotiations with Britain in 1915. Husyan expected British support in his leading an Arab kingdom in return for his support in a revolt against the Ottomans. 1. From Sharif Husayn, 14 July 1915 a. England will acknowledge Arab independence and approve the proclamation of an Arab Khalifate of Islam. b. Arab Government will let England have first pick in all economic enterprises. c. Both parties will agree to help each other out with their military and naval forces—this term is non-negotiable. d. In case of one country going to war, the other will remain neutral, unless the country in war requests aid from the other. e. England will abolish foreign privileges. f. Articles 3 and 4 (C and B) will remain for 15 years and can be renewed in 14 years. g. If the Arab Nations don’t get a response in 30 days we will act as a free nation. 2. From Sir Henry McMahon, 24 October 1915 a. Note: There are letters missing during this time. Apparently, there was correspondence between the two countries before this letter was sent). Cydney Tinsley World at War Sykes-Picot Agreement, Husayn-McMahon Letters, Balfour Declaration b. I took your letter to my government (essentially, McMahon took Husayn’s letter to the British government), and we made the revision that not all of the states you listed can be free, (this consisted of Mersina and Alexandretta and the Syrian portions west of Damascus, Homs, Hama, and Aleppo). All other Arabian nations can be independent. c. Britain will guarantee Holy Places safe-ground. d. Britain will help advise Arab Nations. e. The Arabian Nations will ONLY seek advice from Britain. f. Britain will be in Bagdad and Basra in order to be able to secure them from foreign invaders. g. Your messenger will go over a few trivial things I didn’t go over in this letter. The Balfour Declaration, Stating the British Government’s Support for a Jewish Homeland in Palestine, and Discussions Leading to Issuing It in 1917 Essentially, Britain promised to help the Zionists establish a Jewish homeland in Arab Palestine in 1917. However, because of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, Palestine was governed by an international mandate. Additionally, from the Husayn-McMahon correspondence, Palestine was expected to be fully owned by the Arabs. However, the scales tipped and the War Cabinet authorized Foreign Secretary Lord Arthur James Balfour to support the creation of the Jewish homeland in Palestine. 1. Correspondence from Balfour to French Zionist Lord Rothschild a. We’ve agreed to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine. 2. Cambon Letter to Sokolow, 4 June 1917 a. French agrees to help. 3. Official Zionist Formula, 18 July 1917 a. We think it’s good and important that the Zionists regain their homeland in Palestine. 4. Minutes of War Cabinet Meeting No. 227, Minute No. 2, 3 September 1917 a. We should discuss turning Palestine into a Zionist movement with the United States. b. We should make sure the people are on our side. c. We should find out President Wilson’s thoughts. 5. Minutes of War Cabinet Meeting No. 245, Minute No. 18, 4 October 1917 a. German’s are still trying to take hold of the Zionist Movement. b. Jews are supporting the Movement, especially in Russia and America. c. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs doesn’t see any issues that would arise by creating a Jewish focus in Palestine. d. President Wilson is very favorable of this Movement. 6. Minutes of War Cabinet Meeting No. 259, Minute No. 12, 25 October 1917 a. Zionism to be discussed at the next meeting. 7. Minutes of War Cabinet Meeting No. 261, Minute No. 12, 31 October 1917 a. The majority of Jews in Russia and America are in favor of Zionism. b. The main arguments against Zionism are: i. That Palestine is not a proper place for a home for Jews or any other people group. Cydney Tinsley World at War Sykes-Picot Agreement, Husayn-McMahon Letters, Balfour Declaration ii. The difficulty felt in regards to Jews in Western Countries after said home was made. c. Lord Balfour, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, said that Palestine, if scientifically developed, will be a great place for the Jews or other peoples. d. Balfour also thinks the second argument will not be a problem.
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