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LIFE 120 wk 1

by: Skylar Hoscheit

LIFE 120 wk 1 Life 120

Skylar Hoscheit
GPA 4.0
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These notes cover what we learned during week one.
Fundamentals of Biology I
Dr. Peter Angeletti
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Skylar Hoscheit on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 120 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Peter Angeletti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I in fundamental biology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
08/24 • Biology is the scientific study of life ◦ Scientific inquiry focus • Biologists ask questions about natural world: ◦ how a single cell develops into an organism ◦ how the human mind works ◦ how living things interact in communities ◦ how new virus diseases arise • Science is derived from a latin verb meaning “to know" • Hypothesis must be testified and falsifiable • Some explanations are outside the bounds of science • Life can be studied at different levels from molecules to the entire living planet Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy • Two major processes ◦ Cycling of nutrients which return to the soil ◦ Flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers • Energy enters as light and exits as heat Cells are an organisms basic units of structure and function • Cell-lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life • Properties of all cells ◦ Enclosed by membranes ◦ DNA is the genetic information ◦ undergo cell division Two main types of cells • Prokaryotic ◦ no nucleus of organelles ◦ bacteria and archaea • Eukaryotic ◦ membrane enclosed organelles ◦ nucleus ◦ plants animals and fungi The three domains of life • Prokaryote ◦ domain bacteria • Prokaryote ◦ domain Archaea • Domain Eukarya ◦ includes all eukaryotes Continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA • Chromosomes contain genetic material in the form of DNA ◦ Genes transmit information from parents to offspring ◦ Inherited DNA directs development Systems biology at levels of cells and molecules • organisms genome ◦ entire set of genetic instructions • Era of “genome sequencing" ◦ human genome in 2003 ◦ individual genomes now available ◦ major genomes projects for many organisms • Some surprises in genome sequencing • A striking unity underlies the diversity of life • Evolution makes sense of everything we know about living organisms ◦ life has evolved on earth for billions of years ◦ all organisms are modified descents from their common ancestors • species showed evidence “descent with modification” from common ancestors 08/26 • sodium + chlorine —> sodium chloride • Atoms/elements ◦ Atomic Structure ▪ Protons(+) ▪ Electrons(-) ▪ Neutrons(0) ▪ (# protons = # electrons) • Subatomic Particles ◦ Quarks, Muon, Tau, Gluon, Photons, Neutrinos, Higgs boson strings • Isotopes - stable/unstable variants of elements with extra neutrons ◦ Isotopes of hydrogen ▪ Hydrogen 1 proton ▪ Deuterium 1 proton 1 neutron ▪ Tritium 1 proton 3 neutron ◦Isotopes of carbon ▪ Carbon-12 6 protons 6 neutrons ▪ Carbon-14 6 protons 8 neutrons 08/29 • Aside from water, living organisms consist mostly of carbon-based compounds, organic compounds • Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex, and diverse molecules • Importance of carbon — Variation in Carbon Skeletons ◦ Carbon it the most versatile atom on earth ◦ Produce a vast array of chemical structures — Diverse molecules • Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula and molecular weight, but a different arrangement of atoms • Structural isomers differ in the order which their atoms are attached • Chemical groups ◦ Seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life ▪ Hydroxyl group — Highly Polar ▪ Carbonyl group — ▪ Carboxyl group — Acts as an acid ▪ Amino group — Acts as a base ▪ Sulfhydryl group — Forms disulfide bonds ▪ Phosphate group — Negative Charge ▪ Methyl group — Usually Hydrophobic ◦ Carbon covalent bonds can connect with many different chemical groups ◦ the valences of carbon and its most frequent partners are the “building code” that governs the architecture of living molecules ◦ The properties of an organic molecule also depend on the chemical group • Critically important molecules of all living things fall into four main classes ◦ Carbohydrates ◦ Lipids (NOT macromolecules, associate by hydrophobic interactions) ◦ Proteins ◦ Nucleic acids • Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Nucleic acids can form huge molecules called macromolecules. • Diversity of Polymers: Each cell has thousands of different macromolecules; Macromolecules vary among cells, within a species, between species • Critically important molecules of all living things fall into four main classes ◦ Carbohydrates ◦ Lipids ◦ Proteins ◦ Nucleic acids • Carbohydrates ◦ contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion CH 2. • Monosaccharides ◦ The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars, such as Glucose (C 6 O12 6 • Disaccharides • Polysaccharides ◦ Carbohydrate macromolecules ▪ Polymers of many sugar building blocks • Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material. ◦ Cells store and release energy using a variety of carbohydrates, both simple and complex. ◦ Carbohydrates are used to build the molecules needed for cell structure and function. • Monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar ◦ Monosaccharides serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules ◦ Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbons in the carbon skeleton and the placement of the carbonyl group (C=O) • Polysaccharides, the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles. ◦ The structure and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and the positions of glycosidic linkages. ◦ Polysaccharides: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, and Chitin • Critically important molecules of all living things fall into four main classes ◦ Carbohydrates ◦ Lipids ◦ Proteins ◦ Nucleic acids ◦ Lipids are large molecules that do not form true polymers • Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules ◦ Hydrophobic ▪ The unifying feature of lipids is having little or no affinity for water (not soluble in water) ◦ Lipids are hydrophobic because they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form nonpolar covalent bonds ◦ Lipids are an efficient way to store energy. (fats) ◦ Structural role: Lipids in membranes partition the cell into compartments. (phospholipids) ◦ Functional role: Some lipids are signaling molecules. (steroids) ◦ Lipids include: Fats, Phospholipids, and Steroids ◦ Phospholipids o Two FAs + phosphate group attached glycerol o Phosphate and glycerol group (hydrophilic head) o Fatty acid tails (hydrophobic) ◦ Steroids o lipids of carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings o lipids that regulate many aspects of growth o small modifications of a steroid molecule can make a big difference in its effects on physiology, growth, and development 08/31 • Proteins ◦ Nearly every dynamic ◦ Nearly every dynamic function of a living being depends on proteins. ◦ Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells ◦ Proteins are structurally and functionally complex: a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions ◦ Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms. ◦ A protein is a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides. ▪ Polypeptides are unbranchedpolymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids. ▪ Amino acids are organic molecules with carboxyl and amino groups. ▪ The two functional groups (amino and carboxyl) are involved in condensation reactions that create peptide bonds between amino acids. ◦ Polypeptides ◦ Polypeptides range in length from a few to more than a thousand monomers ◦ Each polypeptide has a unique linear sequence of amino acids, from the amino end to the carboxyl end. ◦ The sequence of amino acids leads to a unique 3D structure. ▪ The structure of a protein is described at 4 levels of complexity. ◦ Sickle Cell Disease ▪ Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids on the polypeptide chain ▪ A slight change in primary structure can affect a protein’s structure and ability to function ▪ Sickle-cell disease, an inherited blood disorder, results from a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin • Nucleic Acids ◦ Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information. ◦ There are two types of nucleic acids ▪ Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ▪ Ribonucleic acid (RNA) ◦ Nucleic acids are polymers called polynucleotides ◦ Each polynucleotide is made of monomers called nucleotides ◦ Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups ◦ The portion of a nucleotide without the phosphate group is called a nucleoside ◦ Nucleic acids are polymers called polynucleotides ◦ Nucleotide consists of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base ◦ Formation of Polymer Nucleotides ▪ Adjacent nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds that form between the hydroxyl (-OH) group on the 3’ carbon of one nucleotide and the phosphate on the 5’ carbon of the next ▪ These links create a backbone of sugar-phosphate units with nitrogenous bases as appendages ◦ DNA Double Helix ▪ Two polynucleotides spiraling around an axis — double helix ▪ Antiparallel — backbones in opposite 5’ —> 3’ directions ▪ N Bases pair by hydrogen bonds ▪ Adenine and Thyme ▪ Guanine and Cytosine


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