Week 3 (September 04-09) - Race and Racism
Week 3 (September 04-09) - Race and Racism ANT3451
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3451 at University of Florida taught by Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Race and Racism in Cultural Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Wednesday, September 7, 2016 A new Racial Order Review Racial paradigm European Origins of Race Race as a Solution/Rationalization Anti-Slavery Movements th Realities of Race in the 19 century Science and Race Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis 19 century debate focused on this point o Scientists stabilize the idea of race as a category Race and species were previously defined o Reproductive isolation o Single originAdam and Eve Retrogression of social thinking o Racism made them think of Polygenesis as a valid theory Samuel Morton Studies of human crania Brain size correlated with intelligence Each race suited to particular environment Louis Agassiz Changed his ideological learnings o Creationism th God made us in the 6 day but made us inherently different o Colleagues work o Visceral judgement Opposed evolutionism Harvard professor o Huge impact on academia Josiah Nott Degeneracy of Negroes Types of Mankind (1854) o Blacks need care and owning o They could not survive without the slave order Monogenesis All humans a single species, with single origin o Inherent Two explanations for difference o Degeneration o Great Chain of Being Lamarack and Darwin Lamarck’s Evolution (1801) Environmental pressure Inheritance of acquired characteristics Giraffe’s example Darwin Evolution (1859) Change follows natural laws Natural selection fundamental No two individuals alike o Some variations are more advantageous than others which leads to natural selection Characteristics passed from parent to offspring Accumulation of adaptive traits=evolution Possible to have both progress and social disruption Herbert Spencer Evolution as: o Fundamental process o Progressive (opposite to Darwin’s idea) o Struggle for survival o It is a competition o Progress is only accomplished if the “fittest” dominates the weak Progress is achieved through inequality Social Darwinism Progress achieved through inequality Evolution as Hierarchy Process ending in perfection End of the black race o Black will die out because they are not evolved and they can’t cope with being free or having independence. o They will not succeed If white people are doing great, it means that they are the fittest Dred Scott Decision (1857) 7-2 opposed He was financed by abolitionists Majority o Never citizens; never have been, never will be o Always seen as inferior o Impassible barrier: no way to change thses facts Dissent o Black voters o Slavery unprotected o Slaves as humans Emancipation & Law 13 , 14 , 15 Amendmentsnothing because of the Dred Scott Law Civil Rights Act of 1875Later overturned Law versus social reality Spread of Racialization New immigration o This sentiment for racism against not only black but any non- whites Hawaii Colonial interests Friday, September 9, 2016 Smedley defines 5 points: Hierarchy Human groups are exclusive Physical characteristics are inherited Link between physical and cultural Division of races ordained by God Mention all of them, but only REQUIRED to expand on one with the example Race in Anthropology – Early Constructions Anthropology Study of Humankind Four subfields o Archeology o Linguistics o Cultural o Physical/Biological Emphasis on: o Human diversity o Biological and cultural nature of mankind o Comparison Origins of Anthropology People have always done anthropology o Maybe not like we do today (professionally) Increase in activity with European expansion o Collecting & Classification th Anthropology emerges when it all comes together (in the 19 century) o Study of cultural difference o Desire to explain antiquity of humankind o Desire to explain biological origins of humankind La Scienza Nuova (1725) Giabattista Vico Universal scheme of human development o Bestial Condition (no morality, no art) o Age of Gods (nature worship, basic social structure) o Age of Heroes (great social inequality, social unrest) o Age of Man (equality with corruption) Cyclical Montesquieu, the Encyclopaedists, & Kant Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws (1748) o Cross cultural study of law The enyclopaedists o Attempt to classify and systematize knowledge Kant, Critique of Pure Reason (1781) o Knowledge is both objective and subjective o Rational vs. Emotional knowledge (two sides of the same coin) o Measurable and observational Legitimate to study the life of everyday people, possible to produce scientific knowledge about society Anthropology and polygenism Samuel Morton – Study of Crania Louis Agassiz – Convert to Polygenism Josiah Nott – Types of Mankind Herbert Spencer – Social Darwinism Opponents Frederick Douglas o Anthropological perspective o People have various origins; they are naturally different but it is not until you combine that with our ideas with slavery that it really can be explained as inequality or hierarchy of beings Joseph Antenor Firmin o The races are equal o All men are endowed with the same qualities and the same faults, without distinction of color or anatomical form The Bureau of Ethnology Anthropology (professionalized” after the Civil Wat Established by congress IN 1879 o John Wesley Powell Consolidation of maps, geographical and ethnographic knowledge Indian Problem Move Native Americans out of their lands They collected data to use it against them Frank Boas Columbia university 1904 People create distinct/particular cultures, which cannot be ranked Culture is historically specific and related to worldview Anthropology becomes a tool to fight racism