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Biology 201, Chapter 2

by: Kayla Wisotzkey

Biology 201, Chapter 2 BIOL 201-015

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > BIOL 201-015 > Biology 201 Chapter 2
Kayla Wisotzkey

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter two; they are a summary of the textbook and the lecture combined.
Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics
Cheryl D. Warren
Class Notes
Biology, Genetics
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Wisotzkey on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201-015 at Towson University taught by Cheryl D. Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Kayla Wisotzkey Chapter 2 The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water  Subatomic particles ­Matter: has mass and occupies space, is composed of atoms ­Nucleus: contains protons (positive charge) and neutrons (no charge). Electrons(negative charge) are found in the orbitals surrounding the nucleus ­MOST of an atom’s volume is empty space ­Mass number: the number of protons PLUS the number of neutrons ­Atomic number: the number of protons (this identifies the element)  ­Valence number: the number of unpaired electrons  ­Octet rule: All atoms want to fill their outer circle with electrons (Max. 8 electrons) ­Electrons are attracted to the positive nucleus, so the farther away the electron is from  the nucleus, the higher its potential energy is ­Isotopes: atoms of a single element that possess different numbers of neutrons  Bonding ­Ion: Any atom with a charge ­Ionic bonds: when an atom gives away or gains an electron. These bonds form: a. cation: has a positive charge, caused by the loss of an electron b. anion: has a negative charge, caused by the gain of an electron ­covalent bonds: when one or more pairs of electrons are shared between 2 atoms, very  STRONG bond a. single covalent bond: one pair of electrons are shared; free rotation and flexibility b. double covalent bond: two pairs of electrons are shared; more versatility, more rigid,  no rotation c. triple covalent bond: three pairs of electrons are shared, extremely rigid  Electronegativity: an atom’s affinity for electrons  ­UPPER RIGHT hand side of the periodic table are more electronegative ­nonpolar covalent bonds: equal sharing of electrons, equal electronegativity ­polar covalent bonds: unequal sharing of electrons; the more electronegative atoms hold  the electrons more tightly and will have a partial negative charge, and the other atom will  have a partial positive charge ­Hydrogen bonding: covalent bond between Hydrogen and a strongly electronegative  atom and another strongly electronegative atom ­To increase a reaction: apply heat, add more reactants, and add catalysts   Water’s abilities ­Hydrogen bonds: Water can form hydrogen bonds, weak chemical associations that form between partially negative Oxygen atoms and partially positive Hydrogen atoms of two  different water molecules ­Stability: water molecules are stable because they satisfy the octet rule and have no  unpaired electrons, and they carry out no electrical charge ­Cohesion: water is attracted to itself and sticks together; this quality is responsible for  water being a liquid and its surface tension ­Adhesion: water sticks to any substance with which it can form hydrogen bonds, causes  the meniscus that occurs in graduated cylinders ­Capillary action: the adhesion of water to a glass surface is stronger than the force of  gravity  Properties of water 1) High specific heat: the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of  that substance to change its temperature by 1C ­Water heats up more slowly and holds its temperature longer than any other  compound 2) High heat of vaporization: the amount of energy needed to change one gram of a  substance from a liquid to a gas ­As water changes from a liquid to a gas it requires energy to break the hydrogen  bonds  3) Water is a solvent: something that dissolves other substances ­Solute: the substance that dissolves in the solvent (salt, sugar, etc.) ­Water organizes nonpolar molecules: when nonpolar molecules are placed in water,  the water molecules exclude them and make them clump together ­Hydrophobic: non­polar molecules, don’t bond with water, “water­fearing” ­Hydrophilic: polar molecules (ions), bond with water, “water­loving”  4) Water can form ions ­ionization: covalent bonds of a water molecule sometimes break, and a proton  dissociates from the molecule. It breaks into a Hydrogen ion and a Hydroxide ion  5) Ice is less dense than water because the hydrogen bonds in ice spread the water  molecules far apart; this causes water to freeze from the top down ­At low temperatures, water molecules are locked into a crystal­like lattice of  hydrogen bonds, forming ice  Acids and bases ­acid: any substance that dissociates in water to increase the Hydrogen ion level and  LOWER THE pH level ­base: a substance that combines with Hydrogen when dissolved in water, lowering the  Hydrogen ion level and RAISING THE pH level ­buffer: a substance that resists changes in pH; it acts by releasing hydrogen ions when a  base is added and absorbing hydrogen atoms when an acid is added…the effect is  keeping the Hydrogen level constant ­Acidosis: human blood’s pH goes from 7.4 to 7.1, could be deadly if not treated ­Alkalosis: human blood’s pH goes from 7.4 to 7.7, deadly if not treated ­pH scale goes from 0 to 14, 0 being acidic and 14 being basic ­pH= ­log[H ]+  


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