FSHN 300_ Chapter 3 Notes
FSHN 300_ Chapter 3 Notes FSHN 300
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brie on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 300 at Colorado State University taught by Eric Stanley Milholland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Food Principles and Applications in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
FSHN300 Chapter 3: Food Composition: Basic Food Chemistry Basic Food Chemistry Atoms o Basic building block of matter o Individual elements on the periodic table o Protons: Positive charge (+) o Electrons: Negative charge (-) Dictates the # of bonds that an atom can form 1. Ex) H—(1 bond) 2. Ex) –O--(2 bonds) 3. Ex) –N—(3 bonds) I I 4. Ex) –C—(4 bonds) I Molecule o Unit of 1+ types of atoms held by chemical bonds Ex) H2O Compound o Substance of unlike atoms Water Water: The simplest nutrient that is the basis for many things in the food world o Free Water: Spoils Quickly because of higher water content Ex) Watermelon or tomatoes spoil more quickly because their molecules are free to interact with mold (spoils quickly) o Bound Water: Spoils less quickly because of lower water content Ex) Bread: Bread has H2O that is chemically bound therefore it can’t interact freely with mold (doesn’t spoil as quickly) Has to be freed through some type of reaction Structure o Neutral charge o Dipolar ** Takes longer to cook at higher altitude Water Chemistry Specific Heat: Heat is required in order to raise the temperature of 1 gram of something by 1 Freezing Point: Liquid changes to a solid Melting Point: Solid changes to a liquid Boiling Point: Liquid changes to a gas Measuring Calories (Note: Number stats shouldn’t be on the exam) o 1 Calorie equals the energy needed to raise 1 gram of water by 1°C o 1 Kilocalorie=1,000 calories Kilocalories=kcal Calories=C c=common reference Water Functions in Food Heat Transfer o Water both transfers and moderates heat Allows for even distribution of heat More effective than other heating methods Acts as a buffer to temperature changes o Ex) Fat has a specific heat of .5, which means it heats twice as fast as water Universal Solvent o Solvent: Substance in which another substance is dissolved Usually liquid o Solute: A substance dissolved in a solvent Usually Solid o Solution: A homogenous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent o Solubility: Ability of one substance to blend uniformly with another substance o Precipitate: To separate or settle out of a solution o Colloidal Dispersions: Solvent with particles that are too large to go into solution, but do not precipitate out Suspension Emulsion o Osmosis: Solvent move across semi permeable membrane to side with higher solute concentration, equalizing solute concentration o Osmotic Pressure: Pressure or pull when 2 different solutes concentration solutions are on either side of a cell membrane o Dehydration occurs in warm temperatures o Hydration occurs in cool temperatures o Solutes reduce water activity through osmosis Hydrolysis o Water breaks chemical bonds into other substances and splits them into 2 or more substances o “Hydro”: Water o “Lysis”: Breaking down Carbohydrates Composition o Carbon—Carbo (C) o Water--- Hydrate (H2O) Sugars, Starches, and Fibers of Food o Cn(H2O)n Mostly found in plants o Made during photosynthesis Monosaccharides Ribose: Found in nucleosides and vitamin B Arabinose: Part of structure of plants Fructose: Fruit sugar found in many plants Galactose: Rare to find in nature o Part of lactose Disaccharides Sucrose: Table sugar Lactose: Milk sugar o Not able to be digested by some Maltose: Malt sugar o Found in beer, cereal, and some infant formulas Oligosaccharides Raffinose and Stachyose o Found in beans o Digesting them will produce gas Fructo-oligosaccharides o Found in fruits and vegetables o Prebiotics Used as a bulking agent/ fat replacer in commercial foods Polysaccharides Starch o Amylose and amylopectin o Digestible by humans Glycogen o Stored energy for animals o Digestible by humans o Turned into lactic acid during slaughter Fiber o Indigestible by humans o Only found in plant food o Soluble vs. Insoluble Both have benefits o Cellulose Hemicellulose Pectic Substances Others (Insulin, vegetable gums etc.) Lipids Also known as “fats” Fat vs. Oil o Fats are solid at room temperature o Oils are liquid at room temperature Exceptions: Coconut, Palm, and Fish Oil Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Not water soluble o With the exception of acetic acid Triglycerides: Three fatty acids o 95% of lipids in foods are triglycerides Fatty Acids o The length is determined based off the number of carbon atoms o The saturation is determined by the number of single bonds between carbon atoms Saturation= No double bonds Phospholipids o Contains phosphorus which helps to build strong bones and teeth o Used as emulsifiers Ex) Lecithin Sterols o Cholesterol only found in animal foods o Plant sterols can lower risk for coronary heart disease Proteins Contain Nitrogen Atoms o This is different from carbohydrates and lipids o Human body can make most necessary (for survival) carbohydrates and lipids, but can only synthesize approximately 50% of proteins o Exposure to different bacteria and enzymes can help form produce like milk and cheese Made From Amino Acids Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins o Most animal proteins are complete o Most plant proteins are incomplete Plant sources have some essential nutrients but in smaller amounts o Complimentary Proteins: Two or more incomplete proteins that, when together, provide amounts of all the essential amino acids Ex) Grains and Legumes Ex) Legumes, seeds, and nuts Functions of Proteins in Foods 1) Hydration 2) Denaturation/ Coagulation 3) Enzymatic Reactions 4) Buffering 5) Browning a. Grilling allows us to “brown” Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins o Organic Contain carbon o Can be destroyed by heat, light, or oxygen o No kcalories Minerals o Nonorganic Do not contain carbon Found on periodic table o Can’t be destroyed by heat, light or oxygen o No kcalories o Microwaving is the best way to conserve vitamins and minerals Functions of Vitamins and Minerals in Food 1) Enrichment: Adding nutrients or vitamins that a product lost through the process a. Ex) When wheat is processed to be flour, it loses vitamins and iron- these are added back in and now the flour is “enriched” 2) Fortification: The product never had a specific vitamin so it was added to increase intake of that vitamin a. Ex) Salt or milk o Antioxidant: A compound that prevents oxidation which then causes deterioration o Free Radical: Unstable molecule that is very reactive and damages cells Antioxidants protect your body from free radical damage Nonnutritive Food Components Food Additive: Any substance that is added to foods Over 3,000 food additives like: o Salt o Sugar o Corn Syrup Purpose of Food Additives o Improves appeal o Extends the storage life o Maximizes performance o Protects the nutrient value Improving Appeal o Color Certified colors vs. natural colors Ex) Sometimes an artificial green is added to mint ice cream to make it seem better or to seem like it has a true mint flavor. Original mint ice cream should be white though. o Texture Plant Compounds o Beneficial (Phytochemicals) o Harmful (Natural Toxins) Caffeine Natural Stimulant Methylxanthines iClicker: Which of the following has the highest water content? a) Bread b) Peanut Butter c) Potato d) Cooked hamburger Answer: C) Potato (Need to pierce potato before cooking because it’s high water content can cause it to explode)