Collective Behavior Professor Rigney
Collective Behavior Professor Rigney SOCY 332
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Lagasse on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 332 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Rigney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Collective Behavior in Sociology at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Collective Behavior 1 Professor Rigney In Class Notes August 25, 2016: Chapter One: Is engaging in violence making you crazy? Has violence ever been effective? Collective Behavior: Spark plug—sparks social change What is its relevance? o Considered one of the factors responsible for social change o The study of social movements is a main topic in Collective Behavior Any organization or collective effort prompting or resisting social change Definition: o Looks at the more exciting spontaneous social change Involves a large number of people 3 Ways Routine and Collective Behavior Differ 1. Duration How long it lasts a. Chicago race riots lasted 5 days b. Routine social behavior—longer c. Collective Behavior change—shorter i. Pokémon Go will fade ii. Hacky sacks faded 2. The Amount of Prep a. Routine social behavior—more thought out b. Collective Behavior—very little planning 3. Structurehow many rules or norms influence behavior a. Routine social behavior—a bit more structure b. Collective behavior—very little structure i. Making it up as they go Sociologist don’t like collective behavior, they prefer structure. Collective Behavior Irony (An outcome or result that seems like the opposite of what we’d normally expect) Sociology has this as an incidental category You study riots to fads o Think collective behavior would make things easier. Since they look at groups you would think they would embrace collective Behavior but they do not. Collective Behavior 2 Professor Rigney In Class Notes Comte 1840’s From France Coined term of sociologyscientific, political Dynamics o Law of 3 Stages It is like a natural law This is what governs humans The social world has laws just like gravity If I’ve uncovered this law that goes with social change then you should leave it alone. Just go with the changes as they come and science will explain everything When we start messing with a natural law we mess it up so just leave it alone. o Comte Definition A conservative reaction to what Marx was saying There has to be an alternative to violence o Collective Behavior is like mob rule and there has to be an alternative. MacKay and LeBon Assume that all crowds are violent and all those in the crowd are participating o Uniformity and violent MacKay (1841) o Collective Behavior-first textbook published concerning crowdsPolitical Just clippings of different articles “Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds” Wasn’t that good because it was descriptive Every incident with violence he is cataloging but not explaining much LeBon (1895) o Most popular book (still in print) o The Transformation/ Contagion View o French think he is high class o If you’re dealing with people one on one we are capable of being responsible and logical/rational o If you take sensible people and put them in a crowd they are transformedbecome nuts o The Law of Mental Unity takes over Collective Behavior 3 Professor Rigney In Class Notes Group Mind our personalities are merged together 3 Factors that explain why people act crazy in crowds (No Rational Thought) 1. Anonymity a. No sense of individual responsibility b. More people involved so how can they pick me out 2. Contagion a. In a crowd rationality takes the back seat while complete emotion takes control, but its emotion that cannot be controlled b. The emotion will spread among the crowd like an infectious disease 3. Suggestibility a. People in a crowd will immediately accept and act on every single instruction issued Allport and Cantril 1924 Psychological response to LeBon Convergence view Riff-Raff view of crowds People are still going to crowd and are violence and are all doing the same thing o It is not surprising that crowds are violent because if you look at them individually they would act like this. o Scum is attracted to crowds so obviously they are going to be violent The intensity of the violence will increase It is not good people that turn crazy—they are already crazy Does not represent the community They are an un-representable group of people that happen to have the same predisposition Turner and Killian 1957 First textbook of Collective Behavior Emergent NormSocial Psychological view Topics Discussed o Crowds o Rumors and Panics o Disasters o Social Movements Marx Collective Behavior 4 Professor Rigney In Class Notes The Communist ManifestoScientific, political Social change happens when there is blood in the streets Scared the hell out of Comte and people like him Marx said that you can speed up or slow down social change, but you cannot prevent it The political structure will be in two groups Change will only happen violently because those with power are not going to give it up just by those without power asking for some. All above responses were to two 18 century revolutions: The industrial What good things we can get from science and technology Using something other than muscle power as a source of energy The Political FranceFrom 1789-1815 (26 years) Looks like everything is going to hell, seems like something is happening every year 4. Birth of popular democracy 5. At the end is the reign of terror Collective Behavior 1 Professor Rigney In Class Notes August 30, 2016: Turner and Killian: Emergent Norm (1957) o Not everyone is a crowd is doing the same thing and not all crowds are violent Sherif Auto Kinetic Effect (1930’s) “Psychology of Social Norms” Wanted to look at norms developing in an experimental environment Based on a kind of spatial illusion o Flashlight in a shoebox with a pinpoint hole making it look like it is moving Objectively we know it is not moving, but for every person it will look like it is moving, diferently for every person o Individual qualities Steps of experiment 1. Each person went into the room by themselves and asked how far the light is moving 2. Then put the individuals in with others to determine how far it was moving a. Put people with diferent answers when they went in by themselves b. They started to merge to an average of their first answers together 3. Then singly went into the room again to judge how far it moved a. Whatever was decided in their group in stage two is what they answered again The extremes are modified We pay attention to others in an ambiguous (uncertain) situation. o How far the light is moving is an ambiguous situation The reason it seemed like it was moving because it was not anchored with another light Emergent Norms Most incidents of Collective Behavior represents an attempt to make since out of an ambiguous situation o They’re trying to figure out what is going on People will search for information concerning what is appropriate behavior o What do others have to say and what are they doing Definition: o The actions of a few conspicuous and active individuals is viewed as the dominant course of action There is pressure to conform to this course of action Collective Behavior 2 Professor Rigney In Class Notes o Determines if the crowd will be violent If decenters (those against it) remain quiet, but still stay in the crowd, that provides support for the dominant course of action Rules emerge at the moment o Situational Rules Does not have to be uniformly violent They recognize that rarely in crowds is everyone doing the same thing o This is because not everyone is there for the same reasons For every crowd there are different groups of people ActivistPeople actually doing something o Smallest group Passive-supporters Not actually involved in it but supporting o Maybe cheering on o Curious See a group and just looking to wee what is going on Looking at the weirdness going on o Probably the largest group Passers-by o Just cutting through Exploiters o See a group and try to manipulate and doing something else o Like someone trying to steal your purse that you sat down to participate in the protest Studying Collective Behavior 3 Problems: especially when dealing with large groups that only have collective behavior in common 1. A lot of collective behavior is not planned a. So it is hard to get stuf together to study it b. We don’t have people just waiting like storm chasers to study it 2. Crowds are large a. Rarely can one person study that 3. It is difficult to conduct controlled research a. Too large and not enough people to do it Techniques Historical Comparative Research o A lot of it is what historians would do Historical documents and what not o Brinton (1952) “Anatomy of Revolution” Are there any general patterns we can find in revolutions? Collective Behavior 3 Professor Rigney In Class Notes Revolutions from diferent times and places Wanted to find generalization in all revolutions (Map a pattern) Four well researched individual revolutions o American Revolution (1776) o French Revolution (1789) o Russian Revolution (1917) o Chinese Revolution (1949) Survey o Interviews, questionnaires, etc. o MPhil and Miller (1973) o Trying to look at the assembling process of crowds o 3 Stages of Crowds (Like a story) Assembling Beginning Behavior that takes place Middle Dispersal ending o Dependent Variable 1/3 showed up and 2/3 didn’t (USC winning and how many people went to the airport) o Independent variable Do these further distinguish the dependent variable Gender, year in school, prior fan behavior, transportation access, availability, instruction (did anyone say lets go to the airport?) Instruction was the strongest to distinguish depend variable Observational o You study a group by becoming apart of the crowd o Look and listen o Lofland (1962) Studying religious cult on west coast (Moonies) 23 people in the cult Looking to see how they recruit people Leader was form South Korea o People probably wont be open to surveys and stuf so he had to join and then write down notes from memory at the end of every day o Was in the cult for 13 months o Buford (1992) “Among the Thugs: Before, during and after a game.
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