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BSC 114, Week 3 Notes

by: Hannah Tomlinson

BSC 114, Week 3 Notes BSC 114

Hannah Tomlinson

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About this Document

Cell part 1
Principles Of Biology I
Kimberly Caldwell
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kimberly Caldwell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
9/9 Chapter 6: The Cell Cells  The lowest level structure capable of performing all the activities of life  Known as cytology or cell biology Prokaryotes  Bacteria  Simple structure  No membrane-enclosed organelles  Has NO nucleus  DNA is concentrated in a region called nucleoid but no membrane surrounds it  The study of bacteria=microbiology Eukaryotes  All life forms except bacteria  Includes plants, fungi, and animal cells  True karyon (or nucleus), indicates the nucleus is enclosed by a membrane  Possess membrane-bound organelles  Typically, 10X bigger than bacteria Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes  Prokaryotes -No nucleus, just a region in the cell containing DNA (called nuclei) -No membrane-bound organelles but has plasma membrane and ribosomes  Eukaryotes -Nucleus -Variety of organelles -Organelles have membranes Surface Area of Cells  Cells are small  As an object increases in size, its volume grows proportionally more than its surface area  The smaller the object, the greater its ratio of surface area to volume  The primary reason cells are small is because each cell relies on passage of nutrients, oxygen, and wastes into and out of its cytoplasm though the plasma membrane  If cells were big, proportions of it wouldn’t receive adequate nutrients or waste would build up Plant vs. Animal Cells  Most organelles are found in both plant and animal cells  Animal cells have the following organelles that plant cells do NOT have -Lysosomes -Centrioles -Flagella  Plant cells have the following organelles that animal cells do NOT have -Chloroplasts -Central vacuole -Cell wall plasmodesmata Nucleus  Contains most genetic material of cell  Its enclosed by the nuclear envelope -The nuclear envelope is a double membrane with pores for the passage of certain macromolecules.  Within the nucleus our DNA is organized with protein into chromatin that looks like a stringy mess with a microscope.  Chromatin condenses into chromosomes before cell division Nucleolus  Site of synthesis and assembly of the components of ribosomes  Ribosome components then pass through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where they combine to form ribosomes Ribosomes  Site of protein synthesis  2 types of ribosomes -Free ribosomes-suspended in the cytoplasm  They make proteins that function within the cytoplasm. -Bound ribosomes-attached to the ER  They generally make proteins that are parts of membranes or to be exported from the cell. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)  Endoplasm=cytoplasm; reticulum=network  A membranous network within the cytoplasm  Consists of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae  The ER membrane separates its internal compartment from the cytosol  The ER is also continuous with the nuclear envelope  2 types of ER -Smooth -Rough Smooth ER  Cytoplasmic surface lacks ribosomes  Functions in -Lipid synthesis (fats, phospholipids, steroids) -Calcium ion storage in muscle cells Rough ER  Cytoplasmic surface of ER membrane is studded with ribosomes  Functions in the final steps of synthesizing membrane proteins  Proteins are folded into their native states within the ER Golgi Apparatus  It is the center of -Manufacturing -Sorting -Warehousing -Shipping  One side of Golgi receives transport vesicles from the ER and then ships material out from its trans face  The cis face is usually located near ER  Protein products are modified while traveling inside Golgi, from the receiving to the shipping end Lysosomes  Membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes  Cell uses lysosomes to digest macromolecules and part of damaged cells  Membranes are important in lysosomes, otherwise the hydrolytic enzymes would digest otherwise healthy cells Lysosome Functions  Phagocytosis: process of engulfing food particles -Performed by amoebas and in some human cells as well  Autophagy: recycling the cell’s own organic material -Lysosome engulfs another organelle (human liver does this often)


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