Week 2 notes:
Week 2 notes: PSYC 2500-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hinds Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2500-001 at East Tennessee State University taught by Robin Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Behavior Analysis in Psychology at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Week 2 Chapter 2: Observing and Recording Behavior Behavioral Assessment: measurement of target behavior(S) in modification Decide if a treatment is necessary (is the behavior a problem?) o Ex: is someone is working out every day but only for 20-30 minutes, it isn’t the best they could be doing but this isn’t a problem behavior. o Ex 2: if someone is partying on the weekends, but is finishing all of their work and taking care of themselves, this isn’t really a problem behavior. Decide the best treatment: the environment will tell you what keeps behavior going/ what the triggers are and what encourages it. o This helps measure the effect of the treatment Indirect Assessment: interviews; questionnaires; rating scales; product measurement to obtain information on target behavior – from the client and others o This has its limits- even when you are with the client themselves. Direct Assessment: in real time; video-taping (easier for teachers and special education needs when you can’t necessarily see everyone in one sitting) It’s important to note that people who seek help themselves will be honest (most of the time) because they sincerely want the help. People who have been coerced or don’t realize they have a problem will lie or project their behavior onto others or the interviewer. Steps in developing Behavior Recording Plan 1. Define the target behavior 2. Logistics of recording (who, what, when, where, why) 3. Method (how long will you record?) 4. Choosing a recording method instrument: check list; narrative writing 1. Defining target behavior: a. Identify exact actions that constitute deficit/ excess b. Action verbs describing specific behavior a person exibits c. Objective & unambiguous i. No reference to internal state Week 2 ii. No speculation as to why iii. No labels as explanation d. Defined so two people can agree i. 2 people should be able to observe the exact actions and agree on what they observed; describing them using the operational definitions/ terms for actions exhibited 2. Logistics a. The observer: Identify who will observe and record behavior i. Participant observer: these are the observers that are engaging in the same activities as the interviewee; this could be a teacher ii. Non-participant observer: reactivity problems iii. Self-monitoring : the client observes their own behavior and records it as it occurs b. When: this is called the “observation period.” i. It is important to choose an observation period when the target behavior is likely to occur c. Where: observation and recording of behavior take place in one of two settings i. Natural setting: this is the place in which the target behavior would normally occur; (ex: classroom of a student; their home) ii. Analogue (contrived) setting: a setting that is not a part of daily routine; (ex: clinic playroom) 3. Recording Methods - a. Continuous recording: the observer records continuously throughout the observation period and records each time the behavior occurs ; in continuous recording, the observer can record various dimensions of the target behavior- i. Frequency: number of times a behavior occurs in an observation period; you measure this by counting the times the behavior occurs Week 2 1. You will use this when the frequency is the most important information about the behavior ii. Duration: the total time the behavior takes to start and finish 1. This is to be used when length of occurrence is most important aspect of behavior iii. intensity: this is the amount of energy exerted during the target behavior; this is often recorded using a rating scale 1. to be used when intensity is most important aspect of behavior iv. latency: this is the time between the stimulus/event of the behavior to the onset b.Product recording: the outcome or permanent product of the behavior is recorded as an indication of the occurrence of the behavior c. Interval recording: observation period is divided into a number of consecutive time intervals, and the behavior is recorded as an occurring or not occurring in each of the intervals 1. Partial: recording every interval 2. Whole: recording during whole time ii. Frequency within interval recording: the number of times the target behavior occurs is recorded within consecutive intervals of time during the observation period d.Time sample recording: Observation period divided into intervals and behavior is recorded during a part of each interval or at specific times during interval; the percentage of intervals is recorded 4. Choosing a recording Instrument: this is what the observer uses to register the occurrence of behavior; pen and pencil are used most often to make notes on paper any time the target behavior is observed. Week 2 a. Most of the time this will be a pre-made data sheet that measure specific dimensions like frequency, latency, duration and intensity; This will help in organizing the recording process b.All behavior recording should be immediate and practical. i. Ex: you can’t observe 20 different kids’ different behaviors. If you are going to measure 20 kids, choose one behavior to observe. Reactivity: This is a phenomenon in which the process of recording behavior causes the behavior to change even before treatment is implemented; this is undesirable for research because it is not representative of the level of the behavior occurring in the absence of the observer There are ways to keep this from happening: -wait until participant is used to observer -have observer record behavior when participant doesn’t know they are being observed Inter-observer Reliability: this is when two observers independently observe and record a behavior at the same time and agree on the occurrence of the behavior (inter- observer agreements) Week 2 Chapter 3: Graphing Behavior and Measuring Change Graph: a visual representation of the occurrence of the target behavior over a period of time; establishes cause and effect o This will usually be a line graph After using a data sheet to record behavior (or using anything) that info will be transferred to a graph o A graph is an efficient way to view the overall of recording behavior for before, during, and after the administration of treatment; used to demonstrate functional relationships between stimuli and behavior A graph consists of the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) axis; labels; numbers; date points; phase lines; and phase labels o Time is indicated by numbers on the x axis and the level of behavior is expressed with numbers on the y axis o A phase line is a vertical line on a graph that represents a change in treatment; this separates the baseline from the treatment phase o A phase label is to show the where the non-treatment phase and the treatment phase start and stop (individually) o Data points indicate the level of a behavior that occurred at a period of time Graphing Behavioral Data All dimensions of behavior can be graphed o What you’ll be measuring (the behavior) will be on the y-axis o The x-axis will be days, sessions, and training
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