Lecture 1 PP with Notes
Lecture 1 PP with Notes BIOL 2500
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2500 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
BIOL 2500: Human Anatomy & Physiology I Instructor: . Shobnom Ferdous Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Office: 144 Funchess Hall 1 Orientation and History Ch. 1 2 Three main themes of this course 1. Interconnection between structure and function 2. Integrative function 3. Adaptive nature of our bodies: inter-relationship between environment and body’s response 3 How do organisms work? Why does the human body look and function the way it does? 4 5 cardiovascular Homeostasis = regulation of stable internal body functions These systems work together to promote homeostasis and carry out the necessary life functions of the body (ingestion and metabolism of nutrients, excretion of wastes, reproduction, growth, etc.)6 What is A&P? • Anatomy = “to cut apart”; study of structure of body parts and relationships to each other • Physiology = study of the function of the body parts; how they work to carry out life- sustaining activities 7 Hippocrates • 460 - 377 B.C. • Greek physician • Father of Western medicine • First to separate disease from superstition • Key players in early natomy 8 Hippocratic Oath (students do not need to remember) I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant: To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art—if they desire to learn it—without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else. I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice. I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art. I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work. Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves. What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about. If I fulfill this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come; if I transgress it and swear falsely, may http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/hippocratic-oath-today.html Beginning to understand organ systems Plato- Aristotle - th nd 5 - 2 centuries BC 10 Vivisections furthered knowledge of anatomy • Herophilus & Eristratus - ~ 2d century B.C. vivisections of criminals • 129 AD- Galen - vivisections of pigs and primates; wrote “the” anatomy text used for 1500 years!! • MIDDLE AGES- study of anatomy outlawed • RENAISSANCE - Anatomical interest/knowledge reestablished • 17 & 18th CENTURIES- anatomists like celebrities; people paid to see dissections in large amphitheaters 11 Subdivisions of anatomy • Gross (macroscopic anatomy) is the study of large, visible structures • Microscopic anatomy of structures too small to be visible to naked eye What invention led to the exploration of microscopic anatomy? 12 Scanning electron microscope image of muscle tissue Compound light microscope Histology – study of tissues Cytology - study of cells Huge advance: In the 1600s Galileo made a compound Transmission electron microscope light microscope allowed us to view tissues and image of muscle tissue components that make up tissues (cells)-magnify up to 1000x Until 1930s when electron microscopes were developed: 13 • Branches of Anatomy • 1. Developmental Anatomy - study of structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood • Embryology : study of developments before birth • Gross/Macroscopic Anatomy – studies large body structures such as stomach, lungs or heart • Systemic Anatomy - cardiologist • Regional Anatomy– ear, nose, throat 14 • Microscopic Anatomy – structures too small to be seen with the naked eye are studied using a microscope – cytology – histology • Radiological Anatomy- study of anatomy using, non-invasive imaging technology 15 X-ray image • Wilhelm Röntgen , in late 1800s • More dense structures show up white (bones and organs) • Less dense structures show up black (lungs and fat) 16 CT scan through the superior abdomen PET scan of peptide accumulation in Alzeihmer’s patient & healthy individual • Computed tomography (CT) - uses x-rays, invented in 1970s-x-rays pass through body in thin cross-sections. Computer puts images of the cross- sections together to give 3D image • Ultrasound- invented in 1920, uses sound waves, which get reflected/scattered when the hit something-analyzed by computer to generate 2D or 3D image • -used frequently in obstetrics because of its safety • -low penetrating power so not good for looking at structures/organs surrounded by bone 17 • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - uses magnets • Positron emission tomography (PET) uses radioactive labeled substance 18 Terminology and the Body Plan A. Body Positions 1. Anatomic Position – subject is: a. standing erect b. facing forward c. upper limbs hanging to the sides d. palms face forward e. any time you refer to a subject you always assume anatomic position. 2. Supine – subject is laying on their back face upward 3. Prone – subject is lying on their belly face downward 19 20 21 Directional terms – allow explanation of where body parts are in relation to one another 1. Superior a. towards head, above b. aka cranial cephalic c. Example : the shoulder is superior to the pelvis 2. Inferior a. away from the head, below b. aka caudal (tail) c. eg. the abdomen is inferior to the neck 22 HUMAN CAT Ex. Cranial/caudal Superior/InferiAnterior/Posterior HUMAN CAT Ex. Dorsal/ventral Posterior/AnteSuperior/Inferior 23 • bilateral – two-sided, Affecting both sides equally. We are bilaterally symmetrical (we are symmetrical about our midline) • ipsilateral – located on same side of body, right and left leg • contralateral– on opposite side, right arm and left leg (or right arm and left arm) 24 • 3. Anterior : – a. in front of – b. aka ventral – c. eg. the sternum is anterior to the spine • 4. Posterior a. back of the body, behind c. aka dorsal – d. eg. the heart is posterior to the ribcage • 5. Medial • a. toward the middle of the body, the inner side of – b. eg. the nose is medial to the eye • 6. Lateral – a. away from the midline, on the other side of – b. the ear is lateral to the eye 25 • 7. Proximal • a. closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk • b. eg. the elbow is proximal to the wrist • 8. Distal – a. further from the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk – b. eg. the knee is distal to the thigh • 9. superficial – a. toward the body’s surface – b. aka external – c. eg. skeletal muscles are superficial to bones • 10. deep – a. away from the body’s surface • b. internal • c. the lungs are deep to the ribs 26 Body Regions and Planes • 1. Two main regions • a. Axial – head neck trunk (think axis) • b. appendicular – appendages/limbs • 2. Three planes • a. sagittal – vertical plane that divides the body into right and left halves • i. midsagittal – equal • ii. parasagittal – unequal • b. frontal – vertical plane that divided the body into anterior and posterior halves • c. transverse – horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts 27 Body Planes Sagittal plane• Midsagittal - on midline • Parasagittal - off midline 28 Planes of the body with corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Median (midsagittal ) plane columnral Rectum Intestines 29 Planes of the body with corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Frontal (coronal) plane Right Left lung Heart lung LiverStomach Spleen 30 Planes of the body with corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Transverse plane LiverAorta PancreasSpleen SubcutaneousSpinal fat layer cord 31 2 Main Body Cavities Dorsal body cavity and Ventral body cavity 32 • Dorsal body cavity -contains cranial cavity (in the skull contains brain) and vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) • Ventral body cavity - divided into 2 main cavities separated by diaphragm • 1. Thoracic cavity - superior to diaphragm; contains heart and lungs a. pleural cavities (2) - contains lungs b. mediastinum - contains pericardial cavity which encloses heart • 2. Abdominopelvic cavity- inferior to diaphragm; 2 parts not separated by muscle or membrane • a. abdominal cavity (superior portion) - houses stomach, intestine, spleen, liver, other organs • b. pelvic cavity (inferior portion) - lies in pelvis- houses urinary bladder, some reproductive organs, rectum 33 Abdominopelvic Quadrants 34 Abdominopelvic Regions 35 Membranes Serosa (serous membrane)- thin, double-layered membrane, lines walls of ventral body cavity and outer surfaces of organs • Visceral serosa - covers organs • Parietal serosa - lines cavity walls • ***pleurisy/peritonitis- Causes roughening of pleurae or peritoneum causes organs to stick together and drag across one another-very painful Serous m embranes Pleural c avity: Pericardial c avity: Abdominopelvic cavity: visceral serosa: visceral p leura visceral p ericardium visceral perito neum covers organs parietal s erosa: parietal p leura parietal pericardium parietal peritoneum lines cavities ! Pleurisy – inflammation of pleura(e) Peritonitis – inflammation of peritoneum 36
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