PY 355 Notes-Week 3
PY 355 Notes-Week 3 PY 355
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 355 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Craig Walter Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Experimenta Psychology in Psychology (PSYC),Arts and Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Lecture 4 Chapter 2: Behavioral Variablitiy & Research 1. Psych and other behavioral sci. involve study of behavioral variability 2. Research q’s are about variability 3. Should be designed to answer these q’s 4. Measurement involves assessment 5. Statistical analyses used Descriptive Stats-summarize & describe behavior Inferential- conclusions about reliability & generalizibility Variance-stat used to indicate amount of variability Range- difference between highest & lowest scores Deviation Score- how much each score differs from the mean -positive: response above the mean -negative: response below the mean Total Sum of Squares- sum of the squared deviations Systematic Variance- portion of total variability related in orderly fashion to investigation Error Variance- unrelated portion Effect Size- strength of relationship between 2 variables Meta Analysis- procedure used to examine every study on a topic Chapter 3: The Measurement of Behavior Types of measures: • Observational • Physiological and Neuroscientific • Self-report Scales • Nominal • Ordinal • Interval • Ratio Observed Score= True Score + Measurement Error True Score- would have obtained if perfection existed Sources of Measurement Error: 1. Transient States 2. Stable Attributes 3. Situational Factors 4. Characteristics of the measure 5. Mistakes in recording Reliability: consistency/ dependability of a measuring technique Reliability= true-score variance/total variance Total Variance= Variance due to true scores+ variance due to measurement error Correlation Coefficient- strength of relationship between 2 measures Test-Retest Reliability- consistency over time InteritemReliability- degree of consistency among items on a scale Item-Total Correlation- the correlation between a particular item and the sum of all other items on a scale Split half reliability- 2 sets and examine corellation Cronbach’s alpha coef.- avg. of all possible split half reliabilities Interrater Reliability- consistency b/t researchers Increase Reliability: 1. Standardize admin. 2. Clarify wording 3. Train observers 4. Minimize errors Validity- actually measures what it says Face Validity- appearance vs. measure Hypothetical Constructs- cannot be directly observed Convergent Validity- measures correlating with each other Criterion related Validity- distinguish on criteria Concurrent Validity- happening presently Predictive- future pediction Test Bias- not equally valid
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