Anthropology week 4 notes
Anthropology week 4 notes 201g
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Graham on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 201g at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Kelly jenks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in Cultural Anthropology at New Mexico State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Anthropology WEEK 4 Anthropology September 6 Before tips: 1. Do essay sooner rather than later 2. Assignment participation thingy described. Anthropologists don’t study race as biology but as a cultural construct. Cultural impact Culture affects gene flow Ex: predjudice against skin color, Mating rules, and transportation technology Examples of mating rules: marrying only cousins or never marry in the family as well Biocultural : incest taboos, this effects the gene pool and increases genetic diseases because people in the same family will likely have the same genetic faults increasing its frequency in the subsequent generations. Culture and skin color: Cultural adaptations like clothing and vitamin D milk allow different skin colors at different climes. Sexual selection: in culture certain appearances are preferred like in our culture too tan isn’t preferred. This results in a lighter skinned population. Culture and malaria: mosquitos breed in stagnant water. Malaria wasn’t a big issue until people began staying long term near water instead of just getting water and moving on. Then People began cutting down trees for wood and creating more space for stagnant water nearby settlements. This resulted in the aforementioned increase in sickle cell anemia to resist malaria. Culture acting as an agent of biological selection: Lactose tolerance, People are generally unable to digest lactose (found in milk) but those who can make lactase which digests lactose are selected for in cultures where milk is a staple of the diet since those with lactose digestion get more nutrition than others. This is shown by the populations with many cows having many lactose tolerant individuals, so 80% of European decent have tolerance while it is 30-0% in those with other decent. Thrifty Genotype: This is a combination of genes that promote fat storage and have been developed due to a combination of times of scarcity and plenty, this is especially common in desert dwelling populations. Those who have regular access to glucose through lactose led to selection for a non-thrifty type gene as a protection against diabetes. Not All traits are adaptive: Blue eyes have no advantage but was a random mutation that spread. Source likely 7-10 k ago around black sea since that is where they are most common. BELL CURVE BOOK: Harvard dudes used IQ tests geared toward Caucasian culture to judge which race had highest IQ . They thought this could predict employment and criminality and should affect reproduction (eugenics). More recently such studies have been focused on Hispanic populations What is intelligence? Multiple types of “smart” and each has different values in different cultures. It is not a trait. Environment and nutrition impacts cognitive abilities. Some cultures focus on musical ability, tools, brain maps (video game like skills). Many IQ tests are based on cultural ability to respond to questions Examples Which is different? a.Laundry b. beer c. clothing Laundry when being cleaned looks like beer but laundry is a type of clothing, Beer and clothing are both objects. So depends on cultural values to choose which of three definitions are most important Primates: Human Origins and Evolution Phyletic Gradualism: Species gradually transforms into a new species over time Punctuated equilibrium: stasis then extinction causes a new species to quickly develop Sudden environment change and takes hundreds of thousands of years EX: Mammals after dinosaurs TAXONOMY Linnaean taxonomy: Organizes on physical attributes(morphology) Goes Kingdom, Phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species focused on skeletal anatomy. Binomial nomencladure: genus + species name such as homo sapiens. Traits and Origins: Homologous: shared due to similar ancestry Examples are front legs on most mammals Analogous: similar due to similar environmental pressures Wings on insects and bats and birds. Cladistic Taxonomy: Classifying purely on ancestry/ relatedness based on appearance of homologous traits. Primates: Appears ~65 mya Adapted to Arboreal (tree living) environments So developed keen vision to judge distances, dexterous hands and feet for gripping, and large brain size to interpret information Prosimians: Lemurs and lorises Dog like pointed and wet noses with a lip attached to the gums or “bound”. This bound lip makes them Strepsirrhines Tarsiers (AKA bush babies) Dry flat noses without bound in middle and very large eyes. Basically creepy Platyrrhines( New World Monkeys) Generally south America, Have flat noses with outward flaring nostrils 100% tree dwelling Prehensile tails (gripping) so swinging from tail. Includes squirrel monkeys and howler monkeys Catarrhines (old world and apes) Sharp noses with downward pointing nostrils No prehensile tails (sometimes none at all) Cercopithecoids (old world monkeys) Typically, quadrupedal, cover Africa, Asia, or the OLD world. Less tree dwelling. Funny video on drunkard monkeys from the old world that steal alcohol. Shows genetic connection to alcoholism. Hominoids (apes) NO TAIL Include greater and lesser apes Lesser apes: SE Asia and Malaysia Great at swinging between branches (brachiating) Little sexual dimorphism (differences between sexes) Generally monogamous pairs, nuclear families Great apes 4 types Orangutans (pongo) Gorilla Chimpanzees and bonobos (pan) Humans (homo) Orangutans Two types are Borneo and Sumatra Sumatra are larger Usually eat fruit but are omnivorous Endangered Very sexually dimorphic Live in groups or alone depending on the spread of resources. If few resources in an area than alone but if plentiful than the area supports groups. Gorilla Found naturally in Sub-Saharan Africa HUGE and thus heavy and usually avoid trees for long term living but do climb for food etc. Weight causes mostly knuckle walking which is walking balanced on the long forearms. Despite cinema interpretation they don’t eat people, usually eat foliage, fruit or insects. Most sexually dimorphic, males almost double size of females. PAN Chimpanzees and bonobos Sub-Saharan Africa Arboreal and terrestrial Eat fruit foliage, insects, eggs and sometimes hunt small animals (monkeys) Make and use basic tools Can move bipedally Commented [Bg1]: Some sexual dimorphisim Mixed communities with smaller subgroups Humans Largest relative brain size, flattest face, longest most opposable thumbs, Terrestrial and bipedal, feet are not grippy Arms most flexible and shorter Due to large brain size the child takes longest to mature so depends on parents long. Primate analogy: studying non-humans to understand prehumen ancestors Most studied Baboons- where we’re from Chimpanzees-similar to us Bonobos-similar to us Reproduction and infants Most animals only have intercourse when the females are in heat. This isn’t true for Bonobos and humans, we ovulate in such a way that no one can tell when it happens barring science. Thus bonobos and humans use intercourse for things other than reproduction. As Dr. Jenks put it “if it’s in porn bonobo’s have done it” this includes homosexuality. The infants are cared for extensively etc. the babies watch the parents and learn from them cultural things. Socializing and bonding, Monkeys have similar body language, will hug, kiss, pet, groom etc. They have distinct emotions similar to humans and will comfort one another etc. Communication and cooperating They have the ability to learn sign language and also develop a symbol language, also they cooperate by hunting together and will hand out food proudly to others. They don’t have human like vocal cords so speech isn’t an option Learned behaviors They can be taught language, also can be taught to create fire, to use and make tools even in an experiment to wash thing like food by others of their group. They have distinct cultures different from group to group and different tools and food gathering techniques. So despite the older philosophers what differs between humans and animals isn’t necessarily culture. Endangering apes Many apes are hunted for hands, and their novelty products, this is not generally illegal. Experimentation on apes is only illegal for chimpanzees even though many monkeys have culture. NEXT HUMAN EVOLUTION.
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