Psychology 3980 lecture notes, week 4
Psychology 3980 lecture notes, week 4 Psych 3980
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Britney Beckett on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3980 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 4: History of Ethics: Doctor’s trial: o Doctors from Nazi Germany were put on trial after WWll for preformed unethical experiments on Jews in concentration camps. Nuremberg Code: o Adopted after Doctor’s trials 1. Participation must be voluntary and informed 2. Must address import question 3. No unnecessary physical or psychological harm should be inflicted on participates 4. Participants have the right to discontinue Tuskegg Experiment: o U.S Public Health Service studied long-term effects of untreated syphilis. o Experimenters targeted poor minorities o Experimenters left participants untreated even after treatment was found Belmont Report: o Has a lot of overlap with Nuremberg Code o Specific for the U.S 1. Respect for persons a. Participant is informed and consents to experiment b. No cohesion- including bribery or excessively large prize 2. Beneficence a. Do everything you can to reduce physical, mental and emotional risk for experiment b. Maintain confidentiality of participants 3. Justice a. Fair and just system for selecting participants b. No targeting a specific group c. Major topic in arguing against animal research APA’s 5 general principles: o Beneficence and no maleficence o Fidelity and responsibility Researcher must act professionally and responsibly Institutions working in the same field of study should work with each other. o Integrity Researcher cannot cheat, lie, steal, misrepresent, or falsify data. o Justice o Respect for persons APA’s 10 ethical standards: o Most important for this class is standard 8 o Standard 8: Informed consent Deception can only be used when justifiable/benefits the experiment Debriefing participates after the experiment to minimize concern Institutional Review Board (IRB): o Oversees human research done at institution o 3 types of review: Exempt Used for research that involves little or no risk to participants Expedited-reviewed Used for research that involves minimal risk Full-review: Needed for any experiment involving deception, embarrassment, or emotional distress Research on non-human animals o Justification: There must be clear benefits of the study Lowest species possible must be used As few of the species as possible must be used o Care and Treatment: Researcher must be trained Animals must be kept in good health Housing must meet federal guidelines o Animal Welfare Act Strict guidelines for treatment of animals in research labs, pets stores, agriculture, zoos, and circuses o Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Must approve any animal research project before it begins Reading Notes: Deception: Omission- withholding some details of the study Commission- actively lying to participates Research misconduct: Data fabrication: Researchers invent data to support their hypothesis Data falsification: Researchers influence the studies results. Influencing participants to act in a way that supports their data or selectively recording observations. Plagiarism: representing someone else’s work as your own. Animal care guidelines and the 3 R’s Replacement-alternatives to animals should be used when possible Refinement- modifying experiment to minimize or eliminate animal distress Reduction- use fewest animal subjects as possible
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