ARTH 330 Class Lecture Notes, Venice
ARTH 330 Class Lecture Notes, Venice ARTH 330
Popular in Studies in Early Modern European Art
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Ghibellini on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 330 at Northern Illinois University taught by Mary Quinlan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Studies in Early Modern European Art in Art History at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
VENICE I. Geography, History, Politics, Art II. Architectural Vocab & Principles III. Venetian Architecture a. Churches b. Palaces c. The Veneto Venice’s position as Queen of the Adriatic Sea Extreme wealth and powerful naval fleet Major trade routes with Germans, French, and into the Alps Byzantine world of taste and art (Gothic in Europe) Never goes to war; very civilized; elected government from important families in Venice Protected well by outer islands No surprise attacks Internal Geography tiny islands, Grand Canal Each smaller island has its own community, main family, churches etc. Functions politically as own system Heart of Venice: Piazza San Marco & Doge’s Palace Church of San Marco, doge’s personal chapel Basilica Local Aldermans Stable representative government Doge’s Palace shows various affiliations Gothic tracery (cut stone pieced together to create arcades) Arcade: row of arches Colonnade: row of columns Arab influence in motif’s and designs/patterns Byzantine style church behind Very open ducal palace The Piazza civic center (in front of church) Piazza San Marco built over small islands Major civic and religious events held here GREEK CROSS CHURCH – 5 domes (1 central) X form Major library on one side of piazza with major collection of Greek manuscripts (High Renaissance) Small churches with piazzas spread throughout Venice Political structure of Venice is by major families, from which the Doge is elected Venice workshop structure is family structured/oriented Bellini family Titian family Tintoretto family Venetians very taken by light effects and how they change Water reflections Weather Principles and Elements Proportion (mathematical ratio) Symmetry (mirror) Colonnade/arcade Classical elements Pediment (triangular top) Entablature horizontal, continuous lintel on classical buildings supported by columns or a wall Frieze part of entablature between architrave and cornice Architrave main beam resting across top of columns, specifically the lower 3 entablature Cornice ornamental molding around the wall of a room just below the ceiling Horizontal molded projection crowning a building, especially uppermost member of the entablature of an order Columns & Capitols Doric plain, unadorned column capital, sturdy Ionic scrolllike ornaments, base supported column, graceful and slender Corinthian elaborate acanthus leaves adorning the capital, stylized, slender Dome rounded vault forming the roof of a building, typically with circular base Piano Nobile main floor of a large house, usually for the family Loggia gallery or room with ones or more open sides, especially one that forms part of a house and has one side open to the garden Arched or arcaded structure Ogival arch GOTHIC; pointed gothic arch drawn with compasses or with arcs of an ellipse Post & Lintel vs. Arch Construction “man is the measure of all things” Mathematical (1 to 1 ratio in human body) proportions Proportionate to a building (should be built the same way) 3 things concerning Architects Function of a building Stability of a building Beauty (mathematically, light, decorative elements) Pantheon in Rome Interior space dome on spherical base Arch support system to distribute weight of dome Open oculus Temple to all gods University of Virginia (Jefferson) Studied Classical Architecture Based on Pantheon Venetian Churches (1400s/1500s) San Marco (Greek Cross plan w/ domes) San Michele 1470’s & 80’s late 1400’s ; no longer Venetian Gothic (attempt to catch up to Classical Rome) on own island longitudinal axis long nave (speaks to what’s inside, like basilica) façade divided into side aisles (symmetry) SIMPLE Arch atop the nave Rose window (gothic) Proportions of façade Awkward; doesn’t look interesting San Zaccaria late 1400’s Columns and arches added Tall nave Basic plan is the same; main arch w/ side arches Classical proportions, more 1:1 Arcades (clustered) and colonnades (odd because over a void) San Giorgio Maggiore 1560’s on barrier island Andre Palladio, architect Façade Pediment sits awkward with Dome 2 temple fronts in front of each other Corinthian columns trancept crosses with long nave dome lets in much light another by Palladio on San Giorgio Maggiore island but slightly different Venetian Palaces 1400s/1500s 1400s Venetian Gothic Merchant families (warehouses on 1 floor) Working area courtyard in the back Piano nobile: main floor for family (salons) “noble floor” The floor above the base floor, sometimes 2 Loggia: arcade with gothic tracery Patterns of red and white stone with gold Ducal heritage families Start becoming symmetrical 1500’s Palace decoration changes same as churches Simple, elegant, classical look; function stays the same Symmetry; central accent & 2 side areas Mullion window internal support Rustication on ground level (more support for building) The Veneto late 1500s Loggia open air working area with columns Villa working farms VILLA BARBARO Temple front for central entrance Work areas on sides Villa Rotonda Perfectly symmetrical plan with central dome Pleasure retreat not work farm
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