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Week 1 and 2 notes: Essays 1-3 and both Documents

by: lavarenzo

Week 1 and 2 notes: Essays 1-3 and both Documents WOST 380

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin Green Bay > Women and Gender studies > WOST 380 > Week 1 and 2 notes Essays 1 3 and both Documents
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These notes are the in class notes we took during week one as well as these reading assignments: -Essay 1: The Anglo-Indian Gender Frontier -Essay 2: European Depictions of Indigenous Women -Ess...
U.S. Women's History
Kimberly Reilly
Class Notes
Women, and, Gender, Studies, WOST, wgst, WOST380, WGST380, KimReilly, KimberlyReilly, Womens' Studies, Women's Gender Studies




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by lavarenzo on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WOST 380 at University of Wisconsin Green Bay taught by Kimberly Reilly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see U.S. Women's History in Women and Gender studies at University of Wisconsin Green Bay.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
In Class Notes ● Women’s History Stages ○ Compensatory:​ “Great Women” ■ Ida Tarbel:​ muckraking journalist for Rockefeller monopoly ■ Jane Addams:​ Hull House founder ■ Francis Ellen Watkins Harper: b ​ lack antislavery suffragist, poet and lecturer ○ Contributory:​ adding women to the dominant narrative or history ○ Reconstruction: ​changing dominant narrative to reflect women’s perception ■ Changing “his”tory to “her”story ○ Gender as a Category of Historical Analysis:​ understanding how ideas on sex shape events and ideas, how they produce meaning ■ How did ideas on manhood/womanhood affect society/events/ideas ● Henry Browne Blackwell:​ ​important because he renounced his rights when he got married (1855), he wanted a marriage of equality ● Sex:​ biological differences and genetic makeup, “stable and unchanging” (in class definitions) ○ 19th century belief that giving women a college education would shrink their ovaries and essentially turn them into men ● Gender:​ social construct of sex, culture attached to sexual difference, how people perceive you ○ Are you male/female vs are you feminine/masculine person (in class definitions) ● Sexuality:​ socially constructed, anatomical and hormonal characteristics setting certain boundaries of attraction, provides cues as to how we respond sexually (textbook definition) ○ If this is true, to what extent do we have a choice in our sexuality? ● Important Themes in the Course ○ Gendered labor division ○ Centralized childbearing and childrearing to women’s lives ○ Differences between formal (men) and informal (some women) power ● Coverture:​ the idea/social law that a woman’s legal identity is merged into husband’s upon marriage ○ She could not own property, sign contracts, accept wages/gifts ○ Husband entitled her to “service and society” (unpaid labor and body) ○ Widow’s dower:​ when husband passed, had right to ⅓ of property (but could not sell it) and could receive ⅓ property after all debts were paid ■ Only if over 21 and widowed ■ If remarried, all assets/property went to new husband, she basically renounced her right to property Essay 1 Notes: The Anglo-Indian Gender Frontier (Brown) ● Gender Frontier: ​term used to describe the why Europeans had difficulty understanding alternative gender realities of Native Americans ○ Describes how they strived to establish gender definitions as “natural” instead of socially constructed (for their own culture) ○ Indians were a “feminized” culture being conquered by “masculinity” ○ Because of culture clash, English wanted to submit women more ■ Pamphlets were made on “how will you know if she’s a good/bad woman” ● Modest clothing ● Modest work (churning butter, sewing, gardening, etc) ■ Men’s “natural domain” is authoritative, they had economic role; they used raw materials, plowed, rode horses, (all masculine/manly traits and activities) ■ Hunting and fishing were also men’s work, but were reserved for the aristocracy ● Algonquin Gender Roles ○ Iopassus:​ female goddess, set standard for gracious entertainment/hospitality (this made Native American women in charge of these things) ○ Women’s tasks: ​cultivating corn, gardening, tended fire, made materials for clothes/jewelry, made furniture and pots/bedding, helped with homebuilding, raised kids, mourned the dead, ■ Lineage/power was also passed through maternal line ■ Theorized that they had some decision making in when tribe was to relocate (because they were the ones in charge of crops) ■ Women also determined the fate of captives ○ Men’s Tasks:​ hunting/fishing, cutting down trees for planting crops ■ Huskanaw:​ male right of passage (included severe tests: hallucinations, starvation, beatings, etc.) ■ Men lived with women unless they were higher up in power, then they had their own living space to be away from femininity/embrace manhood more ○ Pocones: b ​ lood-colored dye men wore to symbolize status ■ Women wore it for sexual encounters/ceremonies for harvest ● English Conquest Justifications ○ Because Native Americans failed to exploit/take over the land ○ Women were “wild animals that needed taming” ○ Lack of private property was seen as feminized/uncivilized ○ No agricultural economy was seen as woman’s fault ○ Shouldn’t rely on women as much as Native Americans did, was seen as an unfair workload ○ Women had easy labor when giving birth - contradictory because of original sin/Eve - meant that Native Americans were uncivilized and more animal than human ○ Lack of facial hair on Native American men - too feminine ○ Chesapeake Indian women were noted especially for their clothing being too immodest; associated with too much passion and uncontrolled sexuality ○ Some Indian women would entice men to get information for killing them (used facade of food/sex) ​ ● John Smith’s capture/rescue with Pocahontas was a ​ ctually (probably) an adoption ceremony where Powhatan defined dominance and could information ○ When Pocahontas seen him in England, she scolded him for not showing the same amount of generosity/gift giving of Native American tradition ● During English conquest, they would burn all food supplies (corn especially) - this was seen as a personal violation to the women (because they were symbolized and strongly associated with corn) Essay 2: European Depictions of Indigenous Women ● African women had easy birth labor: meant they weren’t descended from Eve - meant they were completely unrelated to Europeans ● Difference between races originally wasn’t based on skin color; rather their habits (women’s labor, culture, etc.) it became skin color in the 18th/19th century ● Black women have “monstrous bodies” - context gave them the implication that they were only good for hard labor/field work (they were also hypersexualized by Europeans as well) ● Beautiful women who also have “monstrous bodies” ○ Wording established racial guidelines; European women were more civilized, cultured, and phenotypically superior ○ Also established a double standard; they [African women] were desirable yet repulsive, available and untouchable, beautiful and black ● Common English practice to identify cultures by their women (breasts especially) ○ Medieval women had long breasts that drag and they disguised themselves as young/beautiful to trick men ○ Sagging breasts​ = dangerous/monstrosity ○ Deviant sexual behavior ​= breakdown of natural laws; no shame, no heredity, no descent, no marriage/hierarchy ○ Amerigo Vespucci’s journaling on new lands/women ■ Bodies:​ smooth/clean because of frequent showering, also considered filthy because of no marriage, easy labor, cannibalism, ■ Conveyed admiration for strength, pregnancy, and looks, ​BUT​ conflicted because of European standards on gender ■ Women/female sexuality were associated with cannibalism because they “bit off the men’s penises during sexual intercourse” ■ English wouldn’t touch Native American women to show superiority over Spaniards (who often intermingled and were shown as sexually violent) ■ Because women were depicted as savage = the whole culture was now savage ○ Dugges/Dugs:​ animal teats, also used for indigenous women’s breasts - implies animalistic quality ■ African women had longer breasts, often breastfed over their shoulder to child ■ Was suggested Africans intermingled with apes ■ Africans were ultimately equated with animals ​


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