AST 1002 Week 1+2 Lecture Notes
AST 1002 Week 1+2 Lecture Notes AST 1002-Section 1
Popular in Planets, Stars and Galaxies (AST 1002-Section 1, Mark Riley)
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katherine Ruiz on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AST 1002-Section 1 at Florida State University taught by Mark Riley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see Planets, Stars and Galaxies (AST 1002-Section 1, Mark Riley) in Science at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
ASTRONOMY AST 1002-0001 RILEY WEEKS 1-2 WEEK ONE LECTURE NOTES ASTRONOMY o There are 88 constellations that the sky is divided into o Pinpointing locations/regions in the sky is aided by constellations o ASTRONOMY definition: • Ancient- Study of patterns in the heavens • Now- Study of the universe o UNIVERSE definition: • Totality of Space, time, matter and energy o Keep in mind that Earth is merely average in comparison to the universe o Astronomy DOES NOT = Astrology o Astronomy is the distribution or arrangement of stars whereas astrology is the study of stars MEASURING DISTANCES o Earth is a very small planet in relation to the universe • The moon is the nearest neighbor • Earth orbits the sun which is a medium-sized star • There are approx. 100 BILLION STARS in the Milky Way o SUPERCLUSTER definition: • A cluster of galaxies o Planet – Solar System – Galaxy – Local Galaxy – Supercluster o Light travels at 300,000 kilometers per second (this is the greatest speed in the universe) METRIC SYSTEM o Scale • 1 meter = 100 centimeters • 1 centimeter = 100 millimeters • 1 meter = 1,000 millimeters • 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters o Basic Units (SI) • Distance – Meter (m) • Time – Second (s) • Mass – Kilogram (kg) • Energy – Joule (J) o ASTRONOMICAL UNITS (AU) • 1 AU = 1.5 ???? 10▯ • 1 AU is the distance from the earth to the sun o LIGHTYEAR = distance(d) = speed of light (c) x time (t) OUR BUILDING BLOCKS o Almost every atom in our body was once a star, we’re made of stardust o The universe started as two elements: HYDROGEN and HELIUM o Stars are able to generate energy by making heavier elements out of lighter ones o Dying stars eject elements into space in massive explosions (supernovas) o From supernovas, new humans and stars and planets form! THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD o Scientific Theories… • Must be TESTABLE • Must be CONTINUALLY TESTED • Should be SIMPLE • Should be ELEGANT o Scientific theories can be proven wrong but never right with 100% certainty o Scientific theories have to be subject to rejection o Observation – Hypothesis – Theory – Test – Predictions o Theories do not become law over time o ALL THEORIES MUST AGREE WITH NATURE ATOMS o Atom – Nucleus – Proton (Neutrons) – Quark o Protons and Neutrons make up the nucleus o Each element has a different number of protons (think periodic table!) o Nuclear Fusion: • Reactions in stars and energy is formed o Paul DIRAC and Richard FEYNMAN COSMOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE o Definition: There is nothing special about our place in the universe o The universe is essentially the same everywhere o Matter and energy obey the same laws everywhere o Learning about distant objects can be done by studying closer ones WEEK TWO LECTURE NOTES MOTION OF CELESTIAL OBJECTS o Earth’s rotation is counterclockwise o One rotation on Earth’s axis is 24 hours o The moon rotates too! o Almost all objects in the solar system rotate counterclockwise o Earth’s orbit around the sun IS NOT a perfect circle o Earth is the closest to the sun during the winter solstice (N. Hemisphere’s winter) o CELESTIAL SPHERE definition: • A projection of Earth’s axis and equator into space • Points on the sphere don’t correspond to actual distance o At the Earth’s North Pole, you can see HALF of the Earth’s celestial sphere o Stars… • Rise and set at Earth’s equator • Can be circumpolar • Can never be visible from Earth o Earth’s orbit around the sun is reflective by the sun’s motion on the elliptic SEASONS o The North Pole will always be tilted towards the NORTH STAR (Polaris) o ANGULAR MOMENTUM defines seasons o Because of Earth’s tilt, we have 4 special days a year: • Vernal Equinox – Night and Day are EQUAL (March 21) • Summer Solstice – Longest DAY (June21) • Autumnal Equinox – Night and Day are EQUAL (September 21) • Winter Solstice – Longest NIGHT (December 21) o The tilt of the Earth is 23.5 o North and South Hemispheres have opposite seasons o The North Pole cannot spin in or out of sunlight o The moon and Earth are both always ½ lit by sunlight MOON o SYNCHRONOUS ROTATION: The moon will make one orbit around the Earth AND spins one time on its axis in the exact same amount of time o Earth only sees one side of the moon o “Near side” and “far side” o PHASES OF THE MOON • New (not visible) • Waxing Crescent • First Quarter • Waxing Gibbous • Full • Waning Gibbous • Third Quarter • Waning Crescent o Phases are caused by different amounts of sunlight seen from Earth SOLAR ECLIPSES o During new moon o Happens when the moon passes between the Earth and the sun o These can only be seen by a small portion of Earth o 3 TYPES • Total: Moon completely blocks sunlight • Partial: Only part of the sun can be seen • Annular: Bright ray around moon LUNAR ECLIPSES o Happens at the full moon o When Earth is between the sun and the moon o Lunar eclipses can be seen by a wider audience than solar eclipses o The moon doesn’t totally disappear during eclipses o Refraction causes the moon to appear red o Does not occur every month because the orbit of the moon is tilted 5° o The Earth, sun and moon must be on line of nodes
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