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LING 301- Introduction to Linguistics-Week 2 Notes

by: DanielleCuller21

LING 301- Introduction to Linguistics-Week 2 Notes LING 301

Marketplace > Liberty University > Modern Languages and Linguistics > LING 301 > LING 301 Introduction to Linguistics Week 2 Notes
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About this Document

Notes for week 2 of Introduction to Linguistics at Liberty University.
Introduction to Lingusitics
Jared Barber
Class Notes
ling, 301, LU, Linguistics, Introduction
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by DanielleCuller21 on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 301 at Liberty University taught by Jared Barber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Lingusitics in Modern Languages and Linguistics at Liberty University.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
LING 301: Week 2 Notes: PHONETICS:  Phonetics: the study of linguistic speech sounds, how they are produced (articulatory  phonetics) and their physical aspects (acoustic phonetics)  Knowledge of phonetics is a prerequisite to studying phonology  Speech sounds are created by air pushed out of the lungs; air vibrates as it passes through  the vocal tract  Different positions of the vocal folds, the tongue, lips, and other articulators in the mouth  modify the air causing different speech sounds ANATOMY:  The Larynx (voice box): o A structure made of cartilage and muscle located above the trachea (windpipe)  and below the pharynx. It is where vocal folds are located  Vocal Folds (vocal cords) o Two bands of muscle and tissue in the larynx o Example: voiced sounds and voiceless sounds  Air passages about the larynx (vocal tract) o Oral: velum (soft palate) is raised, blocking off nasal passage o Nasal: velum is lowered, blocking off oral passage CONTRAST THE SOUNDS AND SPELLINGS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS  Psycho  Socks  Though  Thought  Easy  Essay  Pneumonia  New  Gnew  New  Knew  New  Thomas  Tank  Phone  Peas  Rough  Through  Bleached  Blackened  Cheese  Cow  Which  Who  Wash  Sugar  Singer  Finger  Gem  Get  (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 251) PHONETIC ALPHABET   The International Phonetics Association (IPA) has developed a consistent alphabet that is  standardly accepted as the principal phonetic alphabet ARTICULATORS:  Places of articulation: o Example: bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, alveo­palatal, palatal, velar,  glottal  Passive vs. Active articulators  Passive (stationary) Upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar, palate, velar Active (moveable) Lower lip, lower teeth, tongue (tip, blade,  front, center, back, root)   Manners of articulation: the ways in which consonants are produced. The articulators  may close off the oral tract, or may narrow the space considerably. o Example: (oral) stop, nasal (stop), fricative, affricate, etc.  Bilabial: made with two lips o Examples: (pie, buy, my)  Labiodental: lower lip and upper front teeth o Examples: (fie, vie)  Interdental: the tip of the tongue protrudes between the upper and the lower front teeth o Examples: (thigh, thy)  Alveolar: tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge o Example: (tie, die, nigh, sigh, zeal, lie, rye)  Alveopalatal: tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge  o Examples: (shy, she, show)  Palatal: front of the tongue and hard palate  o Example: (you)  Velar: back of the tongue and soft palate o Examples: (hack, hag, hang) MANNERS OF ARTICULATION  Stop: complete closure of articulators, so no air escapes through mouth o Oral Stop: In addition to the articulatory closure in the mouth, the soft palate is  raised so that the nasal tract is blocked off, no air escapes through nose. Air  pressure builds up behind closure, explodes when released  Example: pie, buy (bilabial stop), tie dye (alveolar stop), kye, guy (velar  stop) o Nasal stop: Oral closure, but soft palate is lowered, air escapes through nose  Example: my (bilabial nasal), nigh (alveolar nasal), sang (velar nasal). o Fricatives: Close approximation of two articulators, resulting in turbulent airflow  between them, producing a hissing sound  Example: fie, vie (labiodental, thigh, they (interdental), sigh, zoo,  (alveolar), shy (alveopalatal) o Affricates: made with combination of complete and partial closure   Example: (stop and fricative)  Example: Church (voiceless alveo­palatal affricate), judge (voiced  alveopalatal affricate)  Fricatives and affricated with a more obvious hiss, such as those in (sigh, shy) are called sibilants (stridents)   Approximants: One articulator is close to another, but without the voice tract being  narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced o Liquids (lay/ray) o Glides (yacht/way)  To classify a consonant, refer to 3 dimensions or parameters: o Glottal state (voicing): voiced or voiceless o Place of articulation: labial, alveolar… o Manner of articulation: stop, fricative…  All these parameters are shown on consonant charts:  Glottal state: first voiceless, second voiced  Place: by column  Manner: by row o Articulation of vowels o Articulators are NOT close together o There is no degree of closure o Airflow is relatively unobstructed o ALL VOICED o 4 Parameters for describing vowels o Tongue height o Tongue  backness o Lip rounding  o Tense vs. lax sounds 


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