LING 301- Introduction to Linguistics-Week 2 Notes
LING 301- Introduction to Linguistics-Week 2 Notes LING 301
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by DanielleCuller21 on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 301 at Liberty University taught by Jared Barber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Lingusitics in Modern Languages and Linguistics at Liberty University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
LING 301: Week 2 Notes: PHONETICS: Phonetics: the study of linguistic speech sounds, how they are produced (articulatory phonetics) and their physical aspects (acoustic phonetics) Knowledge of phonetics is a prerequisite to studying phonology Speech sounds are created by air pushed out of the lungs; air vibrates as it passes through the vocal tract Different positions of the vocal folds, the tongue, lips, and other articulators in the mouth modify the air causing different speech sounds ANATOMY: The Larynx (voice box): o A structure made of cartilage and muscle located above the trachea (windpipe) and below the pharynx. It is where vocal folds are located Vocal Folds (vocal cords) o Two bands of muscle and tissue in the larynx o Example: voiced sounds and voiceless sounds Air passages about the larynx (vocal tract) o Oral: velum (soft palate) is raised, blocking off nasal passage o Nasal: velum is lowered, blocking off oral passage CONTRAST THE SOUNDS AND SPELLINGS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS Psycho Socks Though Thought Easy Essay Pneumonia New Gnew New Knew New Thomas Tank Phone Peas Rough Through Bleached Blackened Cheese Cow Which Who Wash Sugar Singer Finger Gem Get (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 251) PHONETIC ALPHABET The International Phonetics Association (IPA) has developed a consistent alphabet that is standardly accepted as the principal phonetic alphabet ARTICULATORS: Places of articulation: o Example: bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, alveopalatal, palatal, velar, glottal Passive vs. Active articulators Passive (stationary) Upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar, palate, velar Active (moveable) Lower lip, lower teeth, tongue (tip, blade, front, center, back, root) Manners of articulation: the ways in which consonants are produced. The articulators may close off the oral tract, or may narrow the space considerably. o Example: (oral) stop, nasal (stop), fricative, affricate, etc. Bilabial: made with two lips o Examples: (pie, buy, my) Labiodental: lower lip and upper front teeth o Examples: (fie, vie) Interdental: the tip of the tongue protrudes between the upper and the lower front teeth o Examples: (thigh, thy) Alveolar: tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge o Example: (tie, die, nigh, sigh, zeal, lie, rye) Alveopalatal: tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge o Examples: (shy, she, show) Palatal: front of the tongue and hard palate o Example: (you) Velar: back of the tongue and soft palate o Examples: (hack, hag, hang) MANNERS OF ARTICULATION Stop: complete closure of articulators, so no air escapes through mouth o Oral Stop: In addition to the articulatory closure in the mouth, the soft palate is raised so that the nasal tract is blocked off, no air escapes through nose. Air pressure builds up behind closure, explodes when released Example: pie, buy (bilabial stop), tie dye (alveolar stop), kye, guy (velar stop) o Nasal stop: Oral closure, but soft palate is lowered, air escapes through nose Example: my (bilabial nasal), nigh (alveolar nasal), sang (velar nasal). o Fricatives: Close approximation of two articulators, resulting in turbulent airflow between them, producing a hissing sound Example: fie, vie (labiodental, thigh, they (interdental), sigh, zoo, (alveolar), shy (alveopalatal) o Affricates: made with combination of complete and partial closure Example: (stop and fricative) Example: Church (voiceless alveopalatal affricate), judge (voiced alveopalatal affricate) Fricatives and affricated with a more obvious hiss, such as those in (sigh, shy) are called sibilants (stridents) Approximants: One articulator is close to another, but without the voice tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced o Liquids (lay/ray) o Glides (yacht/way) To classify a consonant, refer to 3 dimensions or parameters: o Glottal state (voicing): voiced or voiceless o Place of articulation: labial, alveolar… o Manner of articulation: stop, fricative… All these parameters are shown on consonant charts: Glottal state: first voiceless, second voiced Place: by column Manner: by row o Articulation of vowels o Articulators are NOT close together o There is no degree of closure o Airflow is relatively unobstructed o ALL VOICED o 4 Parameters for describing vowels o Tongue height o Tongue backness o Lip rounding o Tense vs. lax sounds