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ENGL 333-Modern Grammar-Week 2 Notes

by: DanielleCuller21

ENGL 333-Modern Grammar-Week 2 Notes ENGL 333

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Notes for week 2 of Modern Grammar at Liberty University.
Modern Grammar
Paul Muller
Class Notes
ENGL, 333, Modern, grammar, LU
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by DanielleCuller21 on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 333 at Liberty University taught by Paul Muller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Modern Grammar in English at Liberty University.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
ENGL 333: Modern Grammar: Week 2 What is Grammar? If we took the words chase, thief, and police, and dropped them onto the page:    Thief                  Chase                                                      Police Would we have a sentence?  Of course not. Grammar is that particular set of strategies that the human mind uses to make sentences out of  words.  GRAMMAR CONCEPTS: Word Order Word Order: is grammatical information, information that makes a particular sentence out of  particular words Notice that we can make out of the words: chase, thief and police The sentence:  The police chased the thief.  AND  The thief chased the police.  There are also many different orders of the words that would fail to make a grammatically well­ formed sentence:  Example:  The chased police thief the.  GRAMMAR CONCEPTS: Grammatical Words In the sentence: The police chased the thief.  There is a word that is not part of the information we proposed to make the sentence out of: the  word THE.  The word THE introduces a certain kind of group of words, in this case, a noun phrase. This is a  grammatical word. It has very little semantic content, or meaning, but a great deal of  grammatical effect, or function.  All of the world’s languages have grammatical words. These words provide many different kinds of grammatical information such as:  various characteristics of the verb, such as tense, aspect, mood, and voice  relationship between: o nouns o verbs and nouns o different clauses of sentences  Grammatical words in English: o Articles and other determiners o Prepositions o Helping verbs o Conjunctions   (Grammatical words are often called function words) GRAMMAR CONCEPTS: Hierarchical Structure In the sentence, The police chased the drunken thief on his motorcycle.  The sentence can be said to be made of at least two parts: The police… (the topic of the sentence, generally called the subject) …chased the drunken thief on his motorcycle. (what is being said about the topic, generally  called the predicate).   But in the second part of the sentence, chased the drunken thief on his motorcycle, can itself also be said to be made of three parts: chased the drunken thief on his motorcycle These groups of words­called phrases­can be units of their own in a sense In other words, wholes­sentences­are made up of parts­phrases­which, themselves, are made up  of parts. This can be depicted like this:  This is a hierarchical structure. Hierarchical structure is one of the defining characteristics of  human language.  GRAMMAR CONCEPT: Word Categories Words are different from one another; but they don’t all behave in the same way Lamp can take the form of lamps (plural). Ugly can take the form of ugliest (superlative). Erase can take the form of erasing (progressive). BUT (generally) Lamp can take neither form lampest or lamping. Ugly can take neither form uglys or uglying. Erase can take neither form erasest or erases (plural). In addition, (generally) Lamp can be the topic of a sentence or be introduced by a grammatical word like the or these: These lamps can be difficult to replace.  But neither ugly nor erase can.  (The/These) Ugliest can be perceived in many different ways.  (The/These) Erases should always be observed in the fall.  In addition, (generally)  Ugly can come between a grammatical word like the and a word that can be used as the topic of a sentence The ugly sore was difficult to cure. But neither lamp nor erase can.  *The lamp store/street/garage could not be found. *The erase store/street/garage should always be observed at night.  In addition, (generally) Erase can carry indications of time, action, attitude, and passivity: Those remarks should have been erased.  But neither lamp nor ugly can.  *Those remarks should have been lamped. *Those remarks should have been uglied.  Word categories differ from one another in terms of:  general semantic (meaning) features,  word form,  word order, but above all, in terms of their grammatical function. Indeed, form, word order, and often, to  some extent, meaning proceed from function.  The principal context word categories are:  nouns  verbs  adjectives  adverbs GRAMMAR CONCEPTS: Heads and Arguments Phrases are made of two kinds of parts, Heads and Arguments. Generally speaking: The head is the central part of the phrase and the one the phrase is named for.  The argument specifies the scope or the application of the head.  Heads are not further divided into parts and thus are not phrases themselves. Arguments are further divided into parts and thus are phrases themselves.  Examples: Noun Phrases A tree…(Head: noun) …with pink flowers (Argument: prepositional phrase) Cat…(Head: noun) …on a hot tin roof (Argument: prepositional  phrase) A singer…(Head: noun) …whose career was cut short by sudden  tragedy (Argument: adjective clause) Examples: Verb Phrases Sink…(Head: verb) …a hole in one (Argument: noun phrase) Leaving…(Head: verb) …on a jet plane (Argument: prepositional  phrase) Seemed… (Head: verb) …unaware of his precarious circumstances  (Argument: adjective phrase)  Examples: Adjective Phrases Unaware… (Head: adjective) …of his precarious circumstances (Argument: prepositional phrase) Example: Prepositional Phrase Into…(Head: Preposition) …the wild blue yonder (Argument: noun  phrase) WHAT IS GRAMMAR: SUMMARY  Grammar is that particular set of strategies that the human mind uses to make sentences out of  words, namely:   Word Order: The linear order of words in a sentence is grammatically meaningful  Grammatical Words: Grammatical words are words that carry mostly grammatical  meaning  Grammatical Inflections: Grammatical inflections are grammatical meanings built right  into words.  Hierarchical Structure: Sentences are made of parts which are often themselves made of  parts.  Word Categories: Different words behave differently in terms of form, order, and  function  Heads and Arguments: Phrases­parts of sentences­are made of heads­main words­and  arguments­modifiers or components These strategies, working together, (along with a few others that we will look at) enable us to  order words into very complex sentences, or ideas. Grammar is a system of order, comprised of  structure, form, and function. Along with the capacity to abstract real and imaginary things and aspects of the universe into  representational sounds and symbols (words), the mental capacity of grammar is one of the most  extraordinary and defining characteristics of what it means to be human.  GRAMMATICAL TERMS: Word Categories: Content words Part of  Meaning Function Form Speech Noun Name of person, place, or  Subject, object, object of  ­s (plural) thing preposition ­‘s (possessive) rd Verb  Action or state Head of predicate ­s (3 , sa., pres) ­ed (past/perfect/passive) ­ing (progressive/gerund) Adjective Describe noun Modify head of noun  ­er (comparative)/more phrase  ­est (superlative)/most Adverb Describe verb or adjective Modify head of verb  ­er (comparative)/more phrase/ adjective phrase ­est (superlative)/most Word Categories: Function Words Part of  Meaning Function Form Speech Preposition Relationship of space­ Head of prepositional  time­etc. phrase Conjunction Logical relationship Determiner  Noun phrase grammar Grammatical head of noun  (various) phrase Helping Verb Verb phrase grammar Grammatical head of verb  (various) phrase Other Concept Definition Example Sentence A group of words containing  The police (Noun phrase) chased the thief (verb  at least a noun phrase: subject phrase) and a verb phrase: predicate Clause A sentence within (which is  We know (that) the police chased the thief.  part of) a sentence Phrase A group of words composed of a head with an optional  We saw the man (head) in the moon (modifier) modifier, which constitutes an  identifiable part of a sentence Subject Noun phrase actor­topic of the  The police chased the thief.  sentence; Noun phrase that  comes before the verb Object Noun phrase patient (recipient) The police chased the thief.  of action in transitive sentence; Noun phrase that directly  follows the verb Predicate Verb phrase comment about  the topic; complement of the  The police chased the thief.  subject Complemen A modifier that is semantically Sarah read the book.  t implied by the head, and thus  We saw the man in the moon.  is necessary Adjunct A modifier that is not  She left the party at eleven o’clock. semantically implied by the  We saw the man in the blue suit. head and thus is not necessary Participle A verb which is preceded by a  Katie is singing an aria helping verb Katie has sung an aria.  Infinitive A verb without tense (or  helping verb or modal) and  Katie likes to sing opera. therefore preceded by ‘to’ Gerund A verb which is also a noun by virtue of being inflected with  Katie’s singing pleased the audience ‘­ing’ Pronoun A word that stands for a noun  Jim saw the guy who held up the bank but he  phrase couldn’t identify him.  Transitive (verb) semantically requiring a Sarah saw the deer. (* Sarah saw) noun phrase­subject Intransitive Dependent relationship Sarah disappeared. (*Sarah disappeared the deer) Subordinate Independent relationship  The thief ran because the police chased him.  Coordinate Independent relationship The police chased the thief and they caught him The police chased the thief and caught him. Active Structural subject (topic) is the Chesterton wrote that book in 1925.  actor Passive Structural subject (topic) is not That book was written (by Chesterton) in 1925.  the actor but the patient of the  action  VERB TYPES English verb types: Verb types are determined by the complements –information packaged in  phrases­that are necessary to complete their meaning.  Verb Type: Example: Type1:   No   complement The book disappeared.  Intransitive required Type 2: Adverbial complement The wedding celebration lasted Intransitive required for three days.  Type 3: Direct Object required Chester saw the strange looking Transitive spacecraft Type   4:   Direct   Object   and Chester brought his fiddle to Bitransitive adverbial complement required the hoe­down.  Type   5:   Direct   object   and The committee awarded a full Bitransitive indirect object required scholarship   to   the   promising student.  Type   6:   Direct   object   and Kublai Khan found Marco Polo Bitransitive object complement required a valuable counselor.  Type   7:   Complement   (noun Romulan ale is potent stuff.  Be­Verb phrase,   prepositional   phrase and adjective phrase) required Type 8: Complement  Klingons seem a rather testy Linking Verb (Adjective phrase or noun  sort of people.  phrase) required


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