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CHM 111

by: Karly Danos

CHM 111 CHM 111

Karly Danos

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I created this list of vocabulary terms to help with all the varying terms in the course.
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karly Danos on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 111 at Miami University taught by in Fall 2012. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see in Chemistry at Miami University.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chemistry Vocabulary Chapter One Mixture: physical combination of two or more pure substances. There is no fixed ratio for the included substances. The substances can be physically taken apart. Solid: do not conform to their container, highly organized. Liquids: takes the shape of its container, moves a lot more. Gases: molecules move freely, they fill the whole container. Pure Substance: has a fixed composition that has not been changed Compounds: made up of atoms of two or more different elements. There is a fixed composition of atoms and molecules (ex. Amount of oxygen in H2O), and they must be chemically taken apart. Atoms: the smallest unit of an element that can exist as a stable, independent entity. You will never be able to see an atom. Elements: made up of atoms of one type. Molecule: fixed number of atoms (at least two) held together by chemical bonds in a certain spatial arrangement. * All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds. Molecules can have just one element, ex. H2. AND molecules can also be compounds. Greek Prefixes: Mono: one di: or bi: two tri: three tetra: four penta: five Hexa: six Hepta: seven octa: eight nona: nine deca: ten Hydrocarbon Prefixes: Meth: one Eth: two Prop: threeBut: four *if greater than 4 uses Greek prefixes Chemical reaction: process whereby reactants are transformed into products Chemical equation: representation of a reaction using chemical formulas (an arrow shows a chemical change) Combustion: rapid combination of oxygen with a substance to produce carbon dioxide Law of Conservation of mass: atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction; mass of consumed reactants = mass of products formed. Complete combustion: has more oxygen, 2 C8 H18+ 25 O2  16CO2 + 18H2O Incomplete combustion: has less oxygen, 2C8H18 + 17O2  16 CO + 18H2O Not complete because it didn’t form CO2 Direct Sources of Air Pollutants: CO: on road/ non-road vehicles (incomplete combustion) O3: secondary pollutant SOx: electricity (Coal); NOx: electricity and vehicles PM: many sources, emitted into and formed in air Pb: pre-1980 (gas); now (smelting, non-road) Catalyst: chemical substance that participates in a chemical reaction and influences the rate of reaction without undergoing a permanent change. Radon (Rn) : naturally occurring noble gas; colorless, tasteless, odorless, chemically unreactive, carcinogen (cancer causing), and radioactive. Uranium: is everywhere at the surface of the planet (soil, rocks, water); natural breakdown of uranium results in Radon. Air Exchange: rate of outdoor air moving in and indoor air moving out; affects how quickly air pollutants build up indoor. Chapter Two Stratosphere: above troposphere, includes ozone layer Mesosphere: 50km and above Stratospheric ozone: plays a vital role in protecting the Earth’s surface (and us) from damaging solar radiation Allotropes: two or more forms of the same element that differ in their chemical structure and therefore in their properties O: Oxygen atom (monoatomic; uncombined), very reactive O 2 Oxygen molecule (diatomic molecule), 21% in air, colorless, odorless, tasteless, supports combustion O : Ozone; triatomic molecule, more reactive than O 3 2 Atomic Theory: Atom is neutral, and has a central nucleus surrounded by one or more electrons. Electrons move rapidly within atomic cloud, held by attraction of nucleus Atomic number (Z) : number of protons in nucleus (determines identity of element; all different) Mass number (A) : total number of protons and a whole neutrons in nucleus Atomic symbol (X) : element symbol, English/ Latin/ Greek name + Isotopes: atoms with the same number of p that differ in the number of n ; defined by their mass number Atomic weight: decimal number on the periodic table; takes the percent natural abundance of each isotope along with its isotopic mass into account Octet Rule: when atoms bond, they lose/gain electrons(for ionic compounds), or share electrons (covalent compounds) to attain a filled outer level of eight electrons Lone pair: pair of electrons that are not involved in bonding; also called “non-bonding electrons” Single covalent bond: formed when one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms; a line represents this Lewis structure: indicates how atoms are connected and if there are any lone pairs Wavelength: the distance between successive peaks, troughs, or one full cycle of the light wave Frequency: the number of waves passing a fixed point in one second Speed of light: v=c/wavelength Photons: packages of energy Chapter Three Transmittance: energy is not absorbed and passes through the molecule Tetrahedral: four groups that are all bonds; they want to get as far away from each other as possible. Tetrahedron: four -cornered figure with four equal triangular sides Trigonal pyramidal: four groups, three are bonds, one is a lone pair Bent: four groups, two are bonds, two are lone pairs; or two are bonds, one is a lone pair Linear: two groups, two bonds, no lone pairs Carbon sinks: about half of CO i2 recycled into the oceans and biosphere; basically this takes carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere, but these sinks are slow so the rate to which we put out carbon dioxide is not as fast as it is being absorbed. Global warming potential: a molecule’s relative contribution of the gas to global warming; assigned to species that have longer life spans= stable Albedo: measure of surface reactivity (how bright is the surface?), when albedo decreases then absorption increases, so the more albedo means the brighter the surface means less absorption Chapter Seven Fission: splitting something into two parts Nuclear fission: splitting a large nucleus into smaller ones with the release of energy Nuclear reaction: process whereby two nuclei collide to produce different products (fusion) OR one nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei (fission). Critical mass: mass required to achieve a self-sustaining chain reaction; if this mass is brought together all at once, fission would occur spontaneously Radioactivity: spontaneous disintegration/decay of an unstable nucleus; emits radiation, the nucleus loses energy Electromagnetic radiation refers to all of the different types of radiations; nuclear radiation refers to the radiation emitted by a nucleus Alpha decay: involves the loss an alpha particle from a nucleus; loss of two protons and two neutrons Beta decay: involves loss of beta particle through the process of one neutron becoming one proton; a proton is gained, but the mass number stays the same Gamma emission: high-energy gamma photons are emitted from an excited nucleus; does not produce a different element; this is just a loss of energy *All isotopes of all elements with z= 84 or greater are radioactive High-level radioactive waste (HLW): requires permanent isolation from biosphere, fuel rods Low-level radioactive waste (LLW): waste with less radioactive materials; less hazardous Chapter 11 (partly chapter 5) Obesity: having a very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass BMI: measurement that compares a person’s weight and their height (does not measure percent of body fat) Electronegativity: the ability of a bonded atom to attract the electrons involved in the bond Polarity: unequal amount of charge with the atoms involved; charge difference, also the pull on each atom is not equal or symmetrical and does not cancel out with each other Solubility: ability to dissolve in something Solute: (salt) the substance being dissolved Solvent: (water) the substance doing the dissolving Malnutrition: a diet lacking in the proper mix of nutrients (energy content and abundance may still be adequate); you can be obese and malnourished Undernourishment: when a person’s daily intake is insufficient to meet metabolic needs Macronutrients: provide essentially all of the energy (calories) and most of the raw materials for repair/synthesis; carbohydrates, fats, proteins (lipid family) Micronutrients: substances needed in much smaller amounts, essential for body to produce enzymes, hormones, and others for proper growth and development, vitamins and minerals Saturated Fats: only single bonds between carbon atoms; they are saturated because it contains the maximum number of hydrogen atoms Unsaturated Fats: contains one or more double bonds between carbon atoms Omega-3: unsaturated fatty acid; the first double bond is on the third position from the methyl end; does not have to have 3 double bonds, just a double bond in the third position! Hydrogenation: process by which hydrogen gas (H ) is 2dded to a double bond and converts it into a single bond; unsaturated fat  saturated fat Trans fat: a type of unsaturated fatty acid (double bond) with a trans- configuration about the double bond; this means that the hydrogen atoms are opposite one another at the carbon bond Cis bond: the hydrogens are on the same side of the carbon bond Covalent bonds: bonds between two non-metals (polar and nonpolar) Sugar: simple carbohydrate, sweet taste, easily digested Starch: complex carbohydrate, not sweet, takes longer to digest Monosaccharides: “single sugars”, one sugar ring, ex: glucose, fructose Disaccharides: “double sugar”, formed by joining two monosaccharide units with a COC linkage Polysaccharides: “many sugar units” Starch: primary carbohydrate in nearly all plant-based foods such as potatoes, grains, and rice Cellulose: fibrous component in cell walls of plants, found in paper, cardboard, cotton Proteins: major components of hair, skin, nails, and muscles; role: transport oxygen, nutrients, and minerals throughout the bloodstream; many hormones are also proteins; major source of nitrogen Amino acids: the building blocks of proteins; they are made up of an Amine group (-NH )2 a carboxylic acid group(-COOH), and the rest of the chain; 20 different types Complete proteins: meat; they have all 9 amino acids that humans do not make Incomplete proteins: beans, corn; they contain only a few of the 9 amino acids humans cannot make, so they must be combined to get all 9 Fat-soluble vitamins: are stored in cells rich in fats; they are harder to get rid of because they must be exercised away Water-soluble vitamins: not stored; any unused excess is excreted Basal metabolism rate (BMR): minimum energy required daily to support basic functions; need 1 calorie per kilogram of body weigh per hour


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