Chapter 4 Psych 101
Chapter 4 Psych 101 PSYC 101 008
Ivy Tech Community College
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carmyn L Watkins on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 008 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by Terrance Kinnard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 3 Psych 101 Notes Critical Thinking- 8 steps Ask questions- be curious, what is the purpose. Define your terms- frame your question in concrete, measurable terms. Examine the evidence- what supports and refutes your hypothesis, conduct research, or read about others who have tested your hypothesis. Always take into account the quality of your research. Analyze assumption and biases- what assumptions might you be making or what biases do you have that narrows your view. Acknowledge these and force yourself to expand your view. Avoid emotional reasoning- try to take your emotions out of your thinking, your view may cloud your judgment. Don’t oversimplify- don’t generalize from a single/few cases or events. Consider other interpretations- force yourself to consider and test other explanations/hypotheses that are contrary to your own, but would also explain your observations. Tolerate Uncertainty- avoid drawing from conclusions unless others have replicated your findings. Scientific Method- Careful observations o Defines variables in operational terms o Variable, anything that can change or vary (weight, temperature, ratings on a stress survey) Measurement o Variables have to be measured so that statistical tests can be used Hypothesis Formation o Hypothesis are stated in such a way that they can be disproven (principal of falsifiability) Experimentation Evaluation There are problems with the scientific method; Hindsight bias- is the tendency to believe, after learning the outcome that you knew all along. Overconfidence- we tend to think we know more than we do The Barnum Effect- the tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate. Two Types of Research Applied vs. Basic Applied- clear, practical, applications. You as a person can do this research. Basic- explores questions that they may be curious about, but not intended to be immediately used. Example: Prozac Experimental Method Looking to prove casual relationship Cause=effect Laboratory vs. Field Non-experimental- Case Studies Observational Studies Naturalistic Psychological tests Surveys Operational Definition- provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study. Beware of a confounding variable- Placebo Effect- when a patient is not actually responding to a drug, but they think they are and their body mimics those effects. Order Effects- When a patient responds to in the order that the effects were presented to them Random assignment Correlational method- CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION States of Consciousness- Conscious Level Preconscious Level Subconscious Level Unconscious Level Attention Process- Selective Attention- the ability to focus awareness on a single stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli. Daydream Believer- Founded by Freud. It is a manifestation of what we truly deal with. Occurs on the subconscious level, can happen, whether someone is asleep or awake. Look at dreams compared to daydreaming. Possible Functions of Daydreaming- Stress and daily management Mental rehearsal Mental arousal when bored Problem solving (practical and creative) Pleasure Sleep- Sleep is a state of consciousness when we are less aware of our surroundings. Goes through the Circadian rhythm. There are 5 stages. When you sleep you submit an alpha wave. Stage 1- light sleep lasts about 10 minutes Stage 2- lasting up to 20mins, occasional “sleep spindles” Stage 3- The start of muscle relaxation, is the hardest state to wake someone out of. Stage 4- Deep sleep, large, slow, brain waves. Stage 5: REM Sleep- Rapid eye movement, a paradoxical sleep. Dreams occur in REM, the body is essentially paralyzed, and the brain is active. REM only lasts for about 10 minutes and can last for about an hour every night. Sleep Disorders Insomnia- When you can’t fall asleep at night. Affects about 10% of the population. Narcolepsy- Falling into REM almost immediately, unpredictable and sometimes in inappropriate locations. Affects less than .001% of the population Sleep Apnea- Lungs failing to expand when you are asleep. You stop breathing when you are asleep can be fatal, you wake up momentarily, gasp for air and then fall back asleep. Is very common in heavy males. Night Terrors- this is not nightmares. Wake up screaming in the middle of the night. People have committed murder because of night terrors thinking they were fighting off an intruder. Is most common in boys 2-8 Somnambulism- Sleep walking. Occurs during the first few hours of sleep, in stage 4. Some people think that sleepwalkers are acting out their dreams. Has been proven that you can wake sleepwalkers. Information processing theory- says that dreams are a way of dealing with everyday life. We dream more when we are stressed.
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