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HIST111 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Cleopatra Shabazz

HIST111 Chapter 1 Notes History 111

Cleopatra Shabazz
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About this Document

These notes cover information about the Old and New World, such as the Bering Land Bridge, Early American Civilizations (Maya, Inca, Aztec, Olmec), The Crusades, Portugal, and the Spanish Conquest ...
United States History to 1865
Dr. Eric Rose
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleopatra Shabazz on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Eric Rose in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 234 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 1 Key Terms  Old World: Eurasia (Europe and Asia) and Africa, the “known world” as of 1500  Pre­Columbia: time period before 1500 which is before the old world came in contact with the New World “the unknown world”  Encomienda: Spanish form of labor tribute which allowed the holder to claim labor from an Indian district for a limited period of time  Hacienda: institutions (large estates) of crops and herds located in the countryside Bering Land Bridge (35,000 – 14,000 years ago)  Icy land bridge that connected Asia and Alaska  Beringia (Bering Strait): dry land that emerged from the bridge  Many people and animals migrated across Beringia and reached all the way down to the southern tip of South America (Tierra del Fuego) America’s Complex Societies  Inca  Dominant imperial power in the Andes  Atahualpa: ruler of the Incas  Cuzco: capital, located in the high mountains   World’s fastest­growing empire in the late 15    century     Efficient network of roads and suspension bridges  Stored grain No written language  Quipu: information encoded through the knotting of colorful string  Olmec  Dominated the Golf Coast between 1200 and 1400 BCE     Built the first pyramids     Developed a writing system     Developed a dual calendar system with a 52­year cycle  Teotihuacan: city and empire that succeeded the Olmec o Located in the mountains near present day Mexico City o 200,000 inhabitants o Founded new colonies in Mesoamerica in order to extract beans, maize and other resources  Maya  Located in the dry, hilly Yucatán plateau  Network of competing city­states  Tikal: one of the largest Mayan cities that controlled commerce with Teotihuacan  Canals: built to water crops that were needed to support their urban system  Writing system (stone carvings) o Astronomical computations o Time keeping methods o Royal ritual of bloodletting     Fall of Teotihuacan o Weakened Mayan civilization o Disrupted Mayan trade with the Valley of Mexico o Droughts destabilized intensive farming system  Aztec  Ruled the Valley of Mexico   Moctezuma: ruler of the Aztecs  Tenochtitlán: great city built out on the lake o Extracted   maize,   cocoa,   beans,   cotton,   and   other   luxuries   from surrounding communities  Lake Texcoco: a lake 5000ft above sea level that caused surrounding land to become swampy (offered little cultivatable soil)  Great Pyramid of the Sun: pyramid inspired by old religion that was constantly rebuilt and enlarged Concept behind the Crusades  Overseas expansion can economically benefit a nation if colonies produce a staple crop through slave labor     First slaves were Muslim captives   “slave” derives from “Slavs” (groups of people from the Black Sea and the Adriatic areas) Portugal  Caravel: very fast vessel (speeds 3­12 knots)  Astrolabe: a device invented by the Arabs used to calculate latitude  Also used compass and created maps in order to become excellent navigators  Established factories (small posts) along offshore islands, as well as on the coast of Africa  Established Brazil as a Portuguese colony Spanish Conquest in the Americas  Christopher Columbus  Navigator for Spain  Niña, Pinta, and Santa María: a fleet of two caravels and a large “square­rigged” vessel that Queen Isabella put Columbus in charge off  Thought he landed in India but actually discovered America  Treaty of Tordesillas  Spain: Western Hemisphere and the Philippines  Portugal: Eastern Hemisphere, Brazil, African Coast  Hernán Cortes (1519)  Sailed from Cuba and landed in Veracruz in order to invade Mexico  Led army into Tenochititlán and seized Aztec ruler Moctezuma  Replaced Aztec religious objects with images of Catholic saints  Conquistadores became new imperial rulers in Mesoamerica  Obtained all the silver and gold they could find  Built Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochititlán  Francisco Pizarro (1531-1532)  Captured Incan ruler Atahualpa  Conquered Cuzco and established a new capital at Lima (located on the coast)


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