Chemical Level of Organization (Inorganic Chemistry part II)
Chemical Level of Organization (Inorganic Chemistry part II) 1330
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zaida Gomez on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1330 at Texas State University taught by Aglaia Chandler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Functional biology in Life and Physical Sciences at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
The Chemical Level or Organization (inorganic Chemistry part II) Electron Vacancies - unfilled shells are more likely to react - Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, have vacancies in their outer shells - Chemical properties of an element are dependent on the number of electrons in an atoms most outer shell (valence shell) - Atoms want to fill outer orbitals (give up electrons Na, take electrons Cl, share electrons O2) - Noble Gases: full outer shells (inert) Chemical Bonds, Molecules, & Compounds Bond- union between electron structures of atoms Molecules- Atoms bonded together (may contain atoms of only one element) -Molecules of compounds contain more than one element in proportions that do not vary Bonds in Biological Molecules Ionic Bonds Formation - Atoms has equal number of electrons and protons (not net charge) - Atom loses electron(s), becomes positively charged ion (cation) - Atom gains electron(s), becomes negatively charged ion (anion) Bonding - One atom loses electrons, becomes positively charged ion - Another atom gains these electrons, becomes negatively charged ion - Charge difference attracts the two ions to each other Covalent Bonds Covalent Bonding - Atoms share a pair or pairs of electrons to fill outermost shell - Single, double, triple covalent bond Nonpolar bonding - Atoms share electrons equally - Nuclei of atoms have the same number of protons Polar Bonding - Number of protons in nuclei of participating atoms is not equal - Electrons spend more time near nucleus with most protons Atom Bonding - Number of unpaired electrons determines the number of bonds an atom can make - Atoms with multiple unpaired electrons can form many single bonds, double bonds, or triple Hydrogen Bonds Bonding - Molecule held together by polar covalent bonds has no net charge - Atoms of the molecule carry different charges - Atom in one polar covalent molecule can be attracted to oppositely charges atom in another molecule - One of the most important interactions in biological molecules - An interaction between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom in a donor group and a pair of non-covalent electrons on an acceptor group Energy Energy- The capacity to do work (movement or change in the physical structure of matter) Cells use energy for Chemical work, Mechanical work, Electrochemical work Forms of energy Energy can be converted to different forms Kinetic- energy associated with motion Potential- stored in location of matter (no change), includes Chemical Energy stored in molecular structure First Law of Thermodynamics- energy can’t be created or destroyed; energy can be transferred or transformed Kinetic Theory of Matter - All atoms and molecules are in constant random motion (energy of motion is called kinetic energy) - The higher the temperature the faster the atoms and molecules move - All motion theoretically stops at absolute
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