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Bio 3 Week 3 Notes

by: Jasmine Nord

Bio 3 Week 3 Notes Biology 1130

Jasmine Nord

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About this Document

This is the rest of the notes from chapter 8. There are tons of pictures and the in important parts are highlighted.
Principles of Biology III
Class Notes
Bio3, Farnsley, Biology, Chapter8, Chap8, Biology3
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Nord on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1130 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Farnsley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology III in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Biology 3 Farnsley Week 9/5 – 9/9 Chapter 8 continued 1. There are 3 different exergonic reactions (exergonic reactions use lots of energy) a. Aerobic respiration  b. Anaerobic respiration i. Reducing inorganic molecules without oxygen c. Fermentation i. Reducing organic molecules 2. Aerobic respiration  [Exergonic reaction] a. Aerobic respiration is the process in which the electrons from the glucose to the  oxygen  i. C H O  + 6O  6CO  + 6H O + energy 6 12 6 2  2 2 1. This is a redox reaction ii. Glucose (C6H12O6) is being oxidized and the oxygen is being  reduced 1. Remember oxygen is very electronegative (not as  electronegative as fluorine but pretty close). So it wants all  the electrons it can get. b. This is done in a 4 step process  i. Glycoysis 1. this is done in the cytosol of the cell 2. this process is done in 2 phases 3. Essentially,  6­carbon glucose gets split into two, 3­carbon  pyruvates ii. Formation of acetyl CoA 1. done in the mitochondria 2. The pyruvates get turned into acetyl CoA iii. Citric acid cycle 1. done in the mitochondria 2. This is a closed loop cycle. So some of the product is then  converted into reactants. iv. Electron transport 1. done in the mitochondria 3. Remember the Mitochondria? a. It’s the “powerhouse” of the cell because it provides the energy for the cell b. It has 2 membranes i. The outer membrane protects what’s inside the mitochondria ii. The inner membrane is called the matrix.  1. this is that maze looking part of the mitochondria 2. its folded extensively so that there is more surface area for  more reactions 4. Glycolysis  a. Creates 2 ATPs b. Phase 1 (Energy investment phase) i. 2 ATP molecules + glucose  2 separate G3P molecules  1. G3P is glyceraldehyde 3­phospate 2. G3P is unstable ii. Energy is required here c. Phase 2 (Energy capture phase) i. G3P molecules +NAD + 2 ADP  pyruvate   d. Substrate­level phosphorylation i. Going from ATP to ADP 5. Formation of acetyl CoA a. The pyruvate goes into the mitochondria and is converted into acetate. i. CO2 is a waste product b. Acetate + NAD + coenzyme A,  acetyl CoA 6. Citric  acid (Krebs)  cycle  a. Creates 2 ATPs b. This cycle is a closed loop cycle c. Oxaloacetate + acetyl CoA  citrate + coenzymeA. i. ATP is created so that oxaloacetate can be created from the  product ii. The citrate (product) is what is converted into oxaloacetate  (reactant) iii. Don’t worry about how the ATP is created. That’s a whole  different process in itself   7. Electron Transport Chain a. This process makes the most ATP (about 32 ATPs) b. Electrons are passed along a chain of NADH and FADH to the electron  acceptor i. Which in this case is Oxygen c. As the electrons are being transported a bit of energy is lost and causes a  proton gradient in the intermembrane. i. Proton gradient; a buildup of protons in the intermembrane space  in the mitochondria ii. The protons are defused from the intermembrane to the matrix  through the ATP synthase and are phosphorylated into ATP. 8. Now most nutrients go through aerobic respiration. However, depending on the  nutrient, it gets oxidized different a. See? Proteins have a more simpler process than carbohydrates 9. Important slides to look at a. slide 16     b. slide 17 c. slide 18 d. slide 20 e. slide 22


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