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Psych notes ch. 2-3

by: Ema Notetaker

Psych notes ch. 2-3 Psyc 2301

Ema Notetaker
Austin Community College

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Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 Notes
Introduction to Psychology
Ziv Shafir
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ema Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2301 at Austin Community College taught by Ziv Shafir in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Austin Community College.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chapter 2 Key Terms - The Biology of Behavior The Nervous System- electrical chemical communication system that controls our mental processes and behaviors.  Neuron- most basic part of the nervous system o Types of Neurons  Sensory- originate from sense organs, send info to CNS  Motor- send info from CNS to the sense organs  Interneuron- (in the brain and spinal cord) help the motor and sensory neurons communicate with each other.  Structure of Neuron- neurons do not touch. Space between is called Synapse.  Action Potential (“All-or-None”)- neuron is either active or resting. Will always go to plus40 when active. Must get past threshold first. More neurons firing more often is how you can tell tap from punch.  Communication between neurons- chemicals will be released from the sending neuron and stick to the receiving neuron. Any chemicals not needed get reabsorbed by the sending neuron. Chemical in nature  Types of Neurotransmitters o Hormones (part of the Endocrine System) Divisions of the Nervous System  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) o Somatic Nervous System (Voluntary) o Autonomic Nervous System (Involuntary)  Sympathetic Nervous System- arousing. a. Ex. Jumping off a plane.  Parasympathetic Nervous System- calming. a. Ex. When you land from the jump.  Central Nervous System (CNS) o Hindbrain – bottom, involuntary  Medulla-  Reticular Formation-  Cerebellum- o Midbrain – middle, helps connect the hind brain and forebrain. Audio/Visual Processing occurs here. o Forebrain – 85% of brain.  Thalamus- operator/switch board of the brain. All senses (except smell) go here first.  Limbic System- 2 a. Amygdala- emotion b. Hippocampus- memory collected c. Hypothalamus- maintenance, reward center,  Cerebral Cortex- a. Frontal lobe- decision making b. Parietal lobe- sensory c. Temporal lobe- visual d. Occipital lobe- hearing  Motor and sensory cortices (strips); association areas- 25% o Output: motor cortex- left hemisphere section controls the body's right side o Input: sensory cortex- left hemisphere section receives input from the body's right side  Neural plasticity- the brains ability to reorganize itself to create new neural (synaptic) connections.  Neurogenesis- idea that we create new neurons as we live. 3 Psych Notes 9.8.16 Ch 3  Dual processing- conscious track and unconscious track.  Selective attention- focused attention a particular stimulus.  Circadian rhythms- refers to the body's natural 24-hour cycle, roughly matched to the day/night cycle of light and dark. The body's internal clock.  Sleep- reversible loss of consciousness o Awake – beta waves; small and fast waves o Relaxing – alpha waves; larger and higher amplitude o Stages:  NREM-1 (Theta waves) – less in frequency higher in amplitude; drowsiness. (45mph)  NREM-2 (Theta waves) (Sleep spindles) – Burst in brain inactivity (30mph)  NREM-3 (Delta waves) – slowest waves; (15mph)  REM (Beta waves) (Sleep paralysis) – Essentially paralyzed; brain active; 65mph; brain is awake; 10 mins of cycle  sleep cycle- 1, 2, 3, 2, REM; 90mins - 120mins; more spent in deep sleep rather than REM. o Functions of sleep-  Sleep protected our ancestors from predators  Restores ad repairs the brain and body  Builds and strengthens memories  Facilitates creative problem solving  The time when growth hormones are active  Sleep disorders: o Insomnia- hard time falling asleep and/or staying asleep o Narcolepsy- fall asleep uncontrollably; genetic o Sleep Apnea- stop breathing in your sleep. o Sleepwalking/Sleep-talking- you are not in REM sleep- in deep sleep; not remembered; process info; eyes open. o Night Terrors- occurs in deep sleep; not remembered. o Nightmares- Just a scary dream; remembered. o Dreams- sequences of images, emotions, and thought that pass through a sleeping persons mind.  Dreams: happens in REM o Function of dreams  Freudian Theory-  Manifest content- part of dream you remember.  Latent content- underlying meaning of the dream.  Information-Processing Theory- Similar to Freudian theory.  Activation-Synthesis Theory- relates to individuals that dream that are weird. Minds way of trying to make sense of neural firings.  Hypnosis: a state of inner absorption and focused attention; help alleviate pain. o Social influence theory- Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative people who go along with the “subject” role they have agreed to play. o Divided Consciousness Theory- Hypnosis is a special Tate of dissociated (divided) consciousness of out dual-track mind.  Psychoactive Drugs: Chemicals introduced into the body which alter perceptions, mood, and other elements of concours experience. o Depressants (“Downers”)- chemicals that reduce neural activity and other body functions; alcohol, opiates, barbiturate, heroin. 2 o Stimulants (“Uppers”)- drugs which intensify neural activity and bodily functions; caffiene, nic, amphetimens/meth, coke, ecstasy. o Hallucinogens- images and other “sensations” that didn't come in through the senses; LSD, weed 3


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